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A Project work on Recent approches in the Treatment of Diabetic Nepheropathy


Affiliations
1 Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Maharashtra, I, India
2 Asst. Professor, Ahinsa Institute of Pharmacy, Dondaicha 425408, Dist. Dhule, M.S.,, India
     

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Renal failure is a common long-torm complication of diabetes mellitus. Stages of diabetic nephropathy have been described that characterize its clinical course. Diabetic nephropathy develops secondary to long- changes that damage the glomeruli’s. Therapy that focuses on the control of glomerular pressures and systemic hypertension can slow the progression of proteinuria and deterioration of renal function. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium channel blockers have been demonstrated to be effective in the management of diabetic nephropathy. A systematic approach to the patient with diabetes with help identify those individuals early in the course of disease when proper therapy may be most helpful. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal disease and a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Diabetic nephropathy has been categorized into stages: micro albuminuria and macro albuminuria. The cut-off values of micro- and macro albuminuria are arbitrary and their values have been questioned. Subjects in the upper-normal range of albuminuria seem to be at high risk of progression to micro- or macro albuminuria and they also had a higher blood pressure than normoalbuminuric subjects in the lower norm albuminuria range. Diabetic nephropathy screening is made by measuring albumin in spot urine. If abnormal, it should be confirmed in two out three samples collected in a three to six-months interval. Additionally, it is recommended that glomerular filtration rate be routinely estimated for appropriate screening of nephropathy, because some patients present a decreased glomerular filtration rate when urine albumin values are in the normal range. The two main risk factors for diabetic nephropathy are hyperglycemia and arterial hypertension, but the genetic susceptibility in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is of great importance. Other risk factors are smoking, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, glomerular hyper filtration and dietary factors. Nephropathy is pathologically characterized in individuals with type 1 diabetes by thickening of glomerular and tubular basal membranes, with progressive meningeal expansion (diffuse or nodular) leading to progressive reduction of glomerular filtration surface. Concurrent interstitial morphological alterations and hyalinization of afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles also occur. Podocytes abnormalities also appear to be involved in the glomerulosclerosis process. In patients with type 2 diabetes, renal lesions are heterogeneous and more complex than in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Treatment of diabetic nephropathy is based on a multiple risk factor approach, and the goal is retarding the development or progression of the disease and to decrease the subject's increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Achieving the best metabolic control, treating hypertension (<130/80 mmHg) and dyslipidemia (LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl), using drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, are effective strategies for preventing the development of micro albuminuria, delaying the progression to more advanced stages of nephropathy and reducing cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes.

Keywords

Recent Aproches, Treatment, Diabetic Nepheropathy.
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  • Google(https://www.ajkd.org/article/S0272-6386(17)31102- 2/pdf,/www.medicalnewstoday.com,www.healthline.com,)
  • Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabete)
  • Adamson CL, Kumar S, Sutcliffe H, France MW, Bolton AJM. Screening strategies in the detection of microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Practical Diabetes.
  • Aurora S, Proust MA, Agy C, Menchine M. Point-of-care betahydroxybutyrate testing for assessing diabetic ketoacidosis severity prior to treatment in the emergency department. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2011
  • Diabetes UK and Care Interventions Team. Needs of the recently diagnosed. Diabetes UK; 2001. Listening project. Report and recommendations.

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  • A Project work on Recent approches in the Treatment of Diabetic Nepheropathy

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Authors

Purushottam Ravindra Patil
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Maharashtra, I, India
Nikhil Kailas Patil
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Maharashtra, I, India
Vinit Khairnar
Asst. Professor, Ahinsa Institute of Pharmacy, Dondaicha 425408, Dist. Dhule, M.S.,, India

Abstract


Renal failure is a common long-torm complication of diabetes mellitus. Stages of diabetic nephropathy have been described that characterize its clinical course. Diabetic nephropathy develops secondary to long- changes that damage the glomeruli’s. Therapy that focuses on the control of glomerular pressures and systemic hypertension can slow the progression of proteinuria and deterioration of renal function. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium channel blockers have been demonstrated to be effective in the management of diabetic nephropathy. A systematic approach to the patient with diabetes with help identify those individuals early in the course of disease when proper therapy may be most helpful. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal disease and a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Diabetic nephropathy has been categorized into stages: micro albuminuria and macro albuminuria. The cut-off values of micro- and macro albuminuria are arbitrary and their values have been questioned. Subjects in the upper-normal range of albuminuria seem to be at high risk of progression to micro- or macro albuminuria and they also had a higher blood pressure than normoalbuminuric subjects in the lower norm albuminuria range. Diabetic nephropathy screening is made by measuring albumin in spot urine. If abnormal, it should be confirmed in two out three samples collected in a three to six-months interval. Additionally, it is recommended that glomerular filtration rate be routinely estimated for appropriate screening of nephropathy, because some patients present a decreased glomerular filtration rate when urine albumin values are in the normal range. The two main risk factors for diabetic nephropathy are hyperglycemia and arterial hypertension, but the genetic susceptibility in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is of great importance. Other risk factors are smoking, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, glomerular hyper filtration and dietary factors. Nephropathy is pathologically characterized in individuals with type 1 diabetes by thickening of glomerular and tubular basal membranes, with progressive meningeal expansion (diffuse or nodular) leading to progressive reduction of glomerular filtration surface. Concurrent interstitial morphological alterations and hyalinization of afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles also occur. Podocytes abnormalities also appear to be involved in the glomerulosclerosis process. In patients with type 2 diabetes, renal lesions are heterogeneous and more complex than in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Treatment of diabetic nephropathy is based on a multiple risk factor approach, and the goal is retarding the development or progression of the disease and to decrease the subject's increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Achieving the best metabolic control, treating hypertension (<130/80 mmHg) and dyslipidemia (LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl), using drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, are effective strategies for preventing the development of micro albuminuria, delaying the progression to more advanced stages of nephropathy and reducing cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes.

Keywords


Recent Aproches, Treatment, Diabetic Nepheropathy.

References