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Eighteen red deer were captured in box traps and then physically restrained in an immobilizing box; three red deer were captured twice, once by chemical restraint (anesthetized with a mixture of Xylazine, Tiletamine and Zolazepam) and once in the immobilizing box. It was found that microhaematocrit, total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, as well as plasma cortisol, were higher after the physical restraint. Anserine and 3-methyl-L-histidine concentrations were higher after the physical restraint in animals undergoing both captures. Data supports previous studies indicating that the physical restraint after capture is more stressful than the chemical one. Anserine and 3-methyl-L-histidine were higher after the physical restraint in red deer undergoing both methods, suggesting that measuring plasma aminoacyl–imidazole dipeptides and their components may be important in stressed animals prone to capture myopathy.


Aminoacyl-Imidazole Dipeptides, Anesthesia, Animal Welfare, Red Deer, Restraint, Stress.
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