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Studies on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of Soya-hulls for Interpretation of Crystallinity Index


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1 Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Kota, Kota324005, Rajasthan, India, India
     

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X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique is a prominent and nondestructive tool, used for the determination of crystallographic structure of any material. The technique follows the Brag’s Law and measures the intensities and scattering angles of the X-rays that leave the material to provide information on phases, preferred crystal orientations, crystal defects, crystallinity, and many other parameters. Crystallinity Index (CI), which is a quantitative indicator of crystallinity of any material, can also be calculated using XRD data and applying Segal’s method. In the present study, XRD patterns of Alkali/Acid treated soya-hulls are recorded and used for the calculation of CI. Results indicated wide variation of CI ranging from 22%-76% with lowest value for sodium hydroxide treated and highest for ascorbic acid treated soya hulls which may be due to maximum removal of hemicelluloses and amorphous lignin type structure. This study reveals that organic acids which are more eco-friendly can work better to increase CI and cellulose content of any lignocellulosic waste biomaterials like soya hulls for the application in composite and nanocomposites material synthesis.

Keywords

Biomaterials, X-ray techniques, Composite materials, Nanocomposites
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  • Studies on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of Soya-hulls for Interpretation of Crystallinity Index

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Authors

Preeti Soni
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Kota, Kota324005, Rajasthan, India, India
Shweta Vyas
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Kota, Kota324005, Rajasthan, India, India

Abstract


X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique is a prominent and nondestructive tool, used for the determination of crystallographic structure of any material. The technique follows the Brag’s Law and measures the intensities and scattering angles of the X-rays that leave the material to provide information on phases, preferred crystal orientations, crystal defects, crystallinity, and many other parameters. Crystallinity Index (CI), which is a quantitative indicator of crystallinity of any material, can also be calculated using XRD data and applying Segal’s method. In the present study, XRD patterns of Alkali/Acid treated soya-hulls are recorded and used for the calculation of CI. Results indicated wide variation of CI ranging from 22%-76% with lowest value for sodium hydroxide treated and highest for ascorbic acid treated soya hulls which may be due to maximum removal of hemicelluloses and amorphous lignin type structure. This study reveals that organic acids which are more eco-friendly can work better to increase CI and cellulose content of any lignocellulosic waste biomaterials like soya hulls for the application in composite and nanocomposites material synthesis.

Keywords


Biomaterials, X-ray techniques, Composite materials, Nanocomposites

References