Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

Human Wildlife Conflict in India:A Review of Economic Implication of Loss and Preventive Measures


Affiliations
1 Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


In a developing economy like India where majority of human population depends heavily on natural resources, the forestdwellers have co-existed with the wildlife for long. However, the growing human dependency on natural resources and degradation of wildlife habitats, have resulted in a conflicting situation between humans and wildlife, and authorities involved in wildlife management. With significant conservation and economic consequences, human wildlife conflict (HWC) undermines well-being of both the parties and threatens the conservation goals. It impacts the people's food security and livelihood and psychosocial wellbeing. We reviewed articles that deal with monetary loss incurred by involved communities and discuss the effectiveness and the short comings of measures taken to address the issue and prevent the loss, in the Indian scenario. There is a lack of studies dealing with monetary cost associated with HWC and no realistic estimates are available for involved species. Majority of the studies are from protected areas with un-protected forests represented poorly. It is imperative that action plans, which target offsetting economic loss of locals and enhance public participation, are put in-place to meet the integrated conservation and development goals in a landscape where human and wildlife can coexist.

Keywords

Carnivores, Human Wildlife Conflict, Opportunity Cost, Primates, Ungulates.
Font Size

User
About The Authors

Upma Manral
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand)
India

Shruti Sengupta
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand)
India

Syed Ainul Hussain
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand)
India

Sakshi Rana
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand)
India

Ruchi Badola
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand)
India


Subscription Login to verify subscription
Notifications

  • Agarwala M., Kumar S., Treves A. and Naughton-treves L. (2010). Paying for wolves in Solapur, India and Wisconsin, USA: Comparing compensation rules and practice to understand the goals and politics of wolf conservation. Biological Conservation, 143(12): 2945–2955.
  • Athreya V. (2006). Is relocation a viable management option for unwanted animals? – The case of the leopard in India. Conservation and Society, 4(3): 419–423.
  • Athreya V.R., Thakur S.S., Chaudhuri S. and Belsare A.V. (2007). Leopards in human-dominated areas: A spillover from sustained translocations into nearby forests? J. the Bombay Natural History Society, 104(1): 45–59.
  • Athreya V., Odden M., Linnell J.D.C. and Karanth K.U. (2011). Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human-dominated landscapes of India. Conservation Biology, 25(1):133-141.
  • Athreya V., Odden M., Linnel J.D.C. and Krishnaswamy J. (2016). A cat among the dogs: Leopard Pantherapardus diet in a human-dominated landscape in western Maharashtra, India. Oryx, 50(01): 156-162.
  • Bakshi P.M. and Kashyap S.C. (2012). The constitution of India. Universal Law Publishing.
  • Bagchi S. and Mishra C. (2006). Living with large carnivores: Predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Unciauncia). J. Zoology, 268(3): 217224.
  • Banerjee K., Jhala Y.V., Chauhan K.S. and Dave C.V. (2013). Living with Lions: The economics of coexistence in the Gir forests, India. PLoS ONE, 8(1): 1–11.
  • Bargali H.S., Akhtar N. and Chauhan N.P.S. (2005). Characteristics of sloth bear attacks and human casualties in North Bilaspur Forest Division, Chhattisgarh, India. Ursus, 16(2): 263–267.
  • Barnes R.F.W. (1996). The conflict between humans and elephants in the central African forests. Mammal Review, 26(2-3): 67–80.
  • Barua M., Tamuly J. and Ahmed A. (2010). Mutiny or clear sailing? Examining the role of the Asian Elephant as a flagship species. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15(2): 145–160.
  • Barua M., Bhagwat S.A. and Jadhav S. (2013). The hidden dimensions of human–wildlife conflict: Health impacts, opportunity and transaction costs. Biological Conservation, 157: 309–316.
  • Berger K.M. (2006). Carnivore-livestock conflicts: Effects of subsidized predator control and economic correlates on the sheep industry. Conservation Biology, 20(3): 751–761.
  • Bergstrom B.J., Arias L.C., Davidson A.D., Ferguson A.W., Randa L.A. and Sheffield S.R. (2014). License to kill: Reforming federal wildlife control to restore biodiversity and ecosystem function. Conservation Letters, 7(2): 131–142.
  • Butler J.R.A. (2000). The economic costs of wildlife predation on livestock in Gokwe communal land, Zimbabwe. African J. Ecology, 38(1): 2330.
  • Charoo S.A., Sharma L.K. and Sathyakumar S. (2011). Asiatic black bear-human interactions around Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India. Ursus, 22(2): 106–113.
  • Chartier L., Zimmermann A. and Ladle R.J. (2011). Habitat loss and human–elephant conflict in Assam, India: does a critical threshold exist? Oryx, 45(04): 528-533.
  • Chauhan, A. and Pirta, R.S. (2010a). Agonistic interactions between humans and two species of monkeys (Rhesus Monkey Macaca mulattaand Hanuman Langur Semnopithecus entellus) in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. J. Psychology, 1(1): 9–14.
  • Chauhan A. and Pirta R.S. (2010b). Public opinion regarding human-monkey conflict in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. J. Human Ecology, 30(2): 105–109.
  • Chauhan N.P.S. and Chowdhury S. (2002). Evaluation of electric fences for their efficacy in controlling elephant damage in northern West Bengal and suggesting improvements. Indian Forester, 128(2): 179–188.
  • Chauhan N.P.S., Barwal K.S. and Kumar D. (2009). Human–wild pig conflict in selected states in India and mitigation strategies. Acta Silvatica et Lignaria Hungarica, 5: 189.
  • Choudhury A. (2004). Human – elephant conflicts in northeast India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 9(4): 261–270.
  • Conover M.R. (2001). Resolving human-wildlife conflicts: the science of wildlife damage management. CRC press.
  • Daszak P., Cunningham A.A. and Hyatt A.D. (2000). Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife-threats to biodiversity and human health. Science, 287(5452): 443-449.
  • Datta-roy A., Ved N. and Williams A.C. (2009). Participatory elephant monitoring in South Garo Hills: Efficacy and utility in a human-animal conflict scenario. Tropical Ecology, 50(1): 163–171.
  • Dave C.V. (2010). Understanding conflicts and conservation of Indian wild ass around Little Rann of Kachchh, Gujarat, India. Final technical report submitted to Rufford Small Grant Program, UK, 39 pp.
  • DeckerD.J.,LauberT.B.andSiemerW.F.(2002).Human-wildlifeconflictmanagement.APractitioners'Guide.
  • Dhanwatey H.S., Crawford J.C., Abade L.A.S., Dhanwatey P.H., Nielsen C.K. and Sillero-Zubiri C. (2013). Large carnivore attacks on humans in central India: a case study from the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve. Oryx, 47(02): 221–227.
  • Estes A.B., Kuemmerle T., Kushnir H., Radeloff V.C. and Shugart H.H. (2012). Land-cover change and human population trends in the greater Serengeti ecosystem from 1984–2003. Biological Conservation, 147(1): 255–263.
  • Fall M.W. and Jackson W.B. (2002). The tools and techniques of wildlife damage management—changing needs: an introduction. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 49(2): 87–91.
  • Fernando P., Kumar M.A., Williams A.C., Wikramanayake E., Aziz T. and Singh S.M. (2008). Review of human-elephant conflict mitigation measures practiced in South Asia. Technical support document submitted to World Bank. WWF–World Wide Fund for Nature, 45 pp.
  • FSI (2015). Forest Survey of India. Indian state of forest report. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate change, Dehradun, 300 pp.
  • Gubbi S., Linkie M. and Leader-Williams N. (2008). Evaluating the legacy of an integrated conservation and development project around a tiger reserve in India. Environmental Conservation, 35(4): 331–339.
  • Gubbi S. (2012). Patterns and correlates of human – elephant conflict around a south Indian reserve. Biological Conservation, 148(1): 88–95.
  • Gubbi S., Swaminath M.H., Poornesha H.C., Bhat R. and Raghunath R. (2014). An elephantine challenge: Human – elephant conflict distribution in the largest Asian elephant population. Biodiversity and conservation, 23(3): 633-647
  • Hegel T.M., Gates C.C., Eslinger D. and Eslinger D. (2009). The geography of conflict between elk and agricultural values in the Cypress Hills, Canada. J. Envir. Management, 90(1): 222–235.
  • Hegglin D., Bontadina F. and Deplazes P. (2015). Human–wildlife interactions and zoonotic transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis. Trends in parasitology, 31(5): 167-173.
  • Imam E., Yahya H.S.A. and Malik I. (2002). A successful mass translocation of commensal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in Vrindaban, India. Oryx, 36(1): 87–93.
  • Jackson R. and Wangchuk R. (2001). Linking snow leopard conservation and people-wildlife conflict resolution: grassischolar_mains measures to protect the endangered snow leopard from herder retribution. Endangered Species Update, 18(4): 138–141.
  • Jackson R.M., Mishra C., Mccarthy T.M. and Ale S.B. (2010). Snow leopards: conflict and conservation. In: Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids, (Eds. Macdonald, D.W. and Loveridge, A.J.), Oxford University Press,pp. 417-430.
  • Jadhav S. and Barua M. (2012). The elephant vanishes: Impact of human-elephant conflict on people's wellbeing. Health and Place, 18(6): 1356-1365.
  • Jayant K., Mehta P., Boominathan D. and Chaudhuri S. (2007). A study of man-elephant conflict in Nagarhole National Park and surrounding areas of Kodagu district in Karnataka, India. Final Report. Envirosearch.
  • Jhala Y.V. and Giles R.H. (1991). The status and conservation of the wolf in Gujarat and Rajasthan, India. Conservation Biology, 5(4): 476–483.
  • Jhala Y.V. (1993). Damage to Sorghum crop by blackbuck. Inter. J. Pest Management, 39(1): 23-27.
  • Karanth K.K., Gopalaswamy A.M., Defries R. and Ballal N. (2012). Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a central Indian protected area. PLoS ONE, 7(12):e50433
  • Karanth K.K., Gopalaswamy A.M., Prasad P.K. and Dasgupta S. (2013). Patterns of human – wildlife conflicts and compensation: Insights from Western Ghats protected areas. Biological Conservation, 166: 175–185.
  • Karanth K.U., Sunquist M.E. and Chinnappa K.M. (1999). Long-term monitoring of tigers: Lessons from Nagarhole. In: Riding the tiger: tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. (Eds. Seidensticker, J., Christie, S. and Jackson, P.),Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 114–122.
  • Karanth, K.U. and Madhusudan., M.D. (2002). Mitigating human–wildlife conflicts in southern Asia. In: Making Parks Work: strategies for preserving tropical nature. (Eds. Terborgh J., van Schaik, C.P., Davenport, L.C. and Rao, M.), Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 250–264.
  • Karanth K.U. and Gopal R. (2005). An ecology-based policy framework for human-tiger coexistence in India. In: People and Wildlife, Conflict or Co-existence? (Eds. Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. and Rabinowitz, A.), Conservation Biology Series-Cambridge, pp. 373.
  • Krithivasan R., Athreya V. and Odden M. (2009). Human-Wolf Conflict in human dominated landscapes of Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra Possible Mitigation Measures. Rufford Small Grants Foundation for Nature Conservation, pp.1-53.
  • Lenin J. and Sukumar R. (2008). Action plan for the mitigation of elephant-human conflict in India. Transformation, 10: 35.
  • Liu F., McShea W.J., Garshelis D.L., Zhu X., Wang D. and Shao L. (2011). Human– wildlife conflicts influence attitudes but not necessarily behaviors: Factors driving the poaching of bears in China. Biological Conservation, 144(1): 538–547.
  • Löe J. and Röskaf E. (2004). Large carnivores and human safety: A review. AMBIO: A J. the Human Environment, 33(6): 283-288.
  • Lyngdoh S., Gopi G.V.,Selvan K.M. and Habib B. (2014). Effect of interactions among ethnic communities, livestock and wild dogs (Cuonalpinus) in Arunachal Pradesh, India. European J. Wildlife Research, 60(5):771-780.
  • Maclennan S.D., Groom R.J., Macdonald D.W. and Frank L.G. (2009). Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation, 142(11): 2419–2427.
  • Madhusudan M.D. (2003). Living amidst large wildlife: Livestock and crop depredation by large mammals in the interior villages of Bhadra Tiger Reserve, South India. Environmental Management, 31(4): 466–475.
  • Madhusudan M.D. and Mishra C. (2003). Why big, fierce animals are threatened: conserving large mammals in densely populated landscapes. In: Battles over nature: the science and politics of conservation in India, (Eds. Saberwal, V.K. and Rangarajan, M.), Permanent Black, New Delhi, pp. 31–55.
  • Maikhuri R.K., Nautiyal S., Rao K.S. and Saxena K.G. (2001). Conservation policy–people conflicts: a case study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site), India. Forest Policy and Economics, 2(3): 355–365.
  • Mateo-Tomás P., Olea P.P., Sánchez-Barbudo I.S. and Mateo R. (2012). Alleviating human–wildlife conflicts: Identifying the causes and mapping the risk of illegal poisoning of wild fauna. J. Applied Ecology, 49(2): 376–385.
  • Meena R.P., Meena B.L., Nandal U. and Meena C.L. (2014). Indigenous measures developed by farmers to curb the menace of blue bull (Boselaphustragocamelus) in district Rajsamand, Rajasthan, India. Indian J. Trad. Knowledge, 13(1), 208-215.
  • Mishra C. (1997). Livestock depredation by large carnivores in the Indian trans-Himalaya: Conflicts perceptions and conservation prospects. Environmental Conservation, 24(4): 338–343.
  • Mishra C., Allen P., Mccarthy T., Madhusudan M.D., Bayarjargal A. and Prins H.H.T. (2003). The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard. Conservation Biology, 17(6): 1512–1520.
  • MoEFCC (2014). Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate change. India's fifth national report to the Convention on Biological Diversity, MoEFCC, GoI, 100 pp.
  • Nadu T., Ramanibai R., Area M., Singha H., Das A., Turtle S. and Radhakrishnan C. (2011). Reptilian fauna of agricultural landscapes of Chembarambakkam Lake, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Reptile Rap, 13: 2–8.
  • Namgail T., Fox J.L., and Bhatnagar Y.V. (2007). Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya. Environmental Management, 39(4): 490-496.
  • Nath C. and Sukumar R. (1998). Elephant-human conflict in Kodagu, southern India: Distribution patterns, people's perceptions and mitigation methods. Unpublished report, Asian Elephant Conservation Centre, Bangalore.
  • Nath A., Sutradhar S., Mani A.K., Kumar K., Narayana B.L., Baburao G., Dharwadkar S., Krishnan G., Vinoth B., Maniraj R., Mahendar Reddy D., Adimallaiah D. andSwamy K. (2012). Herpetofaunal assemblage with special emphasis on community structure and spatiality in amphibians of Cauvery delta region, Tamil Nadu. Asian J. Conservation Biology, 1(2): 78–85.
  • Naughton-Treves L., Treves A., Chapman C. and Wrangham R. (1998). Temporal patterns of crop-raiding by primates: Linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest. J. Applied Ecology,35(4): 596-606.
  • Northrup J.M., Stenhouse G.B. and Boyce M.S. (2012). Agricultural lands as ecological traps for grizzly bears. Animal Conservation, 15(4): 369–377.
  • Nyhus P.J. and Tilson R. (2004). Characterizing human-tiger conflict in Sumatra, Indonesia: Implications for conservation. Oryx, 38(01): 68–74.
  • Ogra M. (2008). Human–wildlife conflict and gender in protected area borderlands: A case study of costs, perceptions, and vulnerabilities from Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal). India. Geoforum, 39(3): 1408–1422.
  • Ogra M. and Badola R. (2008). Compensating human-wildlife conflict in protected area communities: Ground-Level perspectives from Uttarakhand, India. Human Ecology, 36(5): 717–729.
  • Oli M.K. (1994). Snow leopards and a local human population in a protected area: a case study from the Nepalese Himalaya. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Snow Leopard Symposium. International Snow Leopard Trust, Seattle, Washington, pp. 51–64.
  • Packer C., Ikanda, D., Kissui, B. and Kushnir, H. (2005). Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania. Nature, 436(7053): 927–928.
  • Palei N.C., Rath B.P., Pradhan S.D. and Mishra A.K. (2015). An Assessment of Human Elephant (Elephasmaximus) Conflict (HEC) in Mahanadi Elephant Reserve and Suggested Measures for Mitigation, Odisha India. American-Eurasian J. Scientific Research, 10(5): 316–324.
  • Patterson B.D., Kasiki S.M., Selempo E. and Kays R.W. (2004). Livestock predation by lions (Pantheraleo) and other carnivores on ranches neighbouringTsavo National Parks, Kenya. Biological Conservation,119(4): 507–516.
  • Perez E. and Pacheco L.F. (2006). Damage by large mammals to subsistence crops within a protected area in a montane forest of Bolivia. Crop Protect, 25(9): 933–939.
  • Pimentel D., Zuniga R. and Morrison D. (2005). Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecological economics, 52(3): 273–288.
  • Rajpurohit K.S. and Krausman P.R. (2000). Human-sloth-bear conflicts in Madhya Pradesh, India. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28(2): 393–399.
  • Rao K.S., Maikhuri R.K. and Saxena K.G. (2002). Crop damage and livestock depredation by wildlife: A case study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. J. Environment Management, 66(3): 317–327.
  • Rastogi A., Hickey G.M., Badola R. and Hussain S.A. (2012). Saving the superstar: A review of the social factors affecting tiger conservation in India. J. Envir. Management, 113: 328–340.
  • Redpath S., Arroyo B., Leckie F., Bacon P., Bayfield N., Gutierrez R. and Thirgood S. (2004). Using decision modelling to resolve human–wildlife conflicts: A case study with raptors and grouse. Conservation Biology, 18: 350–359.
  • Saberwal V.K., Gibbs, J.P., Chellam, R. and Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1994). Lion-human conflict in the Gir forest, India, Conservation Biology, 8(2): 501–507.
  • Sekhar N.U. (1998). Crop and livestock depredation caused by wild animals in protected areas: The case of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Environmental Conservation, 25(02): 160–171.
  • Sidder A. (2016). Tiger Got Your Goat? Here's Who to Call. news.Nationalgeographic.com.Retrieved 18 July 2016, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/07/wild-seve-human-wildlife-conflict- onservation-india-krithi-karanth/.
  • Siex K.S. and Struhsaker T.T. (1999). Colobus monkeys and coconuts: A study of perceived human-wildlife conflicts, J. Applied Ecology, 36(6): 1009–1020.
  • Sillero-Zubiri C. and Switzer D. (2001). Crop raiding primates: Searching for alternative, humane ways to resolve conflict with farmers in Africa. Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Oxford University, Oxford.
  • Sillero-Zubiri, C., Sukumar R. and Treves A. (2006). Living with wildlife: The ischolar_mains of conflict and the solutions. In: Key topics in conservation biology. (Eds. Macdonald, D.W. and Service, K.),Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Malden, USA, pp. 266-272.
  • Singh A.K., Singh R.R. and Chowdhury S. (2002). Human-Elephant Conflicts in Changed Landscapes of South West Benagal, India. Indian Forester, 128(10): 1119–1132.
  • Singh B.B. and Gajadhar A.A. (2014). Role of India's wildlife in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, risk factors and public health implications. ActaTropica, 138: 67-77.
  • Sukumar R. (1991). The management of large mammals in relation to male strategies and conflict with people. Biological Conservation, 55(1): 93–102.
  • Sukumar R. (1994). Wildlife-human conflict in India: An ecological and social perspective. In: Social ecology (Eds. Guha, R.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
  • Thirgood S., Woodroffe R. and Rabinowitz A. (2005). The impact of human–wildlife conflict on human lives and livelihoods. In: People and Wildlife, Conflict or Coexistence? (Thirgood, S., Woodroffe, R. and Rabinowitz, A. Eds.) Cambridge University Press.
  • Treves A. and Karanth K.U. (2003). Human-carnivore conflict: Local solutions with global applications: Introduction. Conservation Biology, 17(6): 1489–1490.
  • Vijayan S. and Patil B.P. (2002). Impact of changing cropping patterns on man-animal conflicts around Gir protected area with specific reference to Talala Sub-District, Gujarat, India. Population and Environment, 23(6): 541–559.
  • Vyas R. (2013). Snake diversity and voluntary rescue practice in the cities of Gujarat State, India: An evaluation. Reptile Rap, 15: 27–39.
  • Wangchuk R. and Jackson R. (2004). A community-based approach to mitigating livestock-wildlife conflict in Ladakh, India. Strategic Innovations for Improving Pastoral Livelihoods in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Highlands, 2: 12-19.
  • Whitaker N. (2007). Survey of human / crocodile conflict in India, Maharashtra state. Madras Crocodile Trust: Madras, December.
  • Williams A.C., Johnsingh A.J.T. and Krausman P.R. (2001). Elephant-human conflicts in Rajaji National Park, northwestern India. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29(4): 1097–1104.
  • Woodroffe R., Thirgood S. and Rabinowitz A. (2005). The impact of human-wildlife conflict on natural systems. In: People and Wildlife, Conflict or Co-existence? (Eds. Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. and Rabinowitz, A.), Conservation Biology Series-Cambridge, pp. 1–9.
  • WWF (2005). Human wildlife conflict manual. Wildlife Management series. WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature, Southern African Regional Programme Office (SAPRO).
  • Yadav P.K., Kapoor M. and Sarma K. (2012). Land use land cover mapping, change detection and conflict analysis of Nagzira-Navegaon corridor, central India using geospatial technology. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 1(2): 90–98.
  • Young J.C., Marzano M., White R.M., McCracken D.I., Redpath S.M., Carss D.N., Quine C.P. and Watt A.D. (2010). The emergence of biodiversity conflicts from biodiversity impacts: characteristics and management strategies. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19(14): 3973–3990.
  • Zimmermann A., Davies T.E., Hazarika N., Wilson S., Chakrabarty J., Hazarika B. and Das D. (2009). Community-based human-elephant conflict management in Assam. Gajah, 34.
  • Zimmermann A. and Ladle R.J. (2011). Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict in Assam, India?: does a critical threshold exist? Oryx, 45(4): 528–533.

Abstract Views: 512

PDF Views: 0




  • Human Wildlife Conflict in India:A Review of Economic Implication of Loss and Preventive Measures

Abstract Views: 512  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

Upma Manral
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India
Shruti Sengupta
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India
Syed Ainul Hussain
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India
Sakshi Rana
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India
Ruchi Badola
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India

Abstract


In a developing economy like India where majority of human population depends heavily on natural resources, the forestdwellers have co-existed with the wildlife for long. However, the growing human dependency on natural resources and degradation of wildlife habitats, have resulted in a conflicting situation between humans and wildlife, and authorities involved in wildlife management. With significant conservation and economic consequences, human wildlife conflict (HWC) undermines well-being of both the parties and threatens the conservation goals. It impacts the people's food security and livelihood and psychosocial wellbeing. We reviewed articles that deal with monetary loss incurred by involved communities and discuss the effectiveness and the short comings of measures taken to address the issue and prevent the loss, in the Indian scenario. There is a lack of studies dealing with monetary cost associated with HWC and no realistic estimates are available for involved species. Majority of the studies are from protected areas with un-protected forests represented poorly. It is imperative that action plans, which target offsetting economic loss of locals and enhance public participation, are put in-place to meet the integrated conservation and development goals in a landscape where human and wildlife can coexist.

Keywords


Carnivores, Human Wildlife Conflict, Opportunity Cost, Primates, Ungulates.

References