An Exclusive Review on Menstrual Problems
Menstrual cycle is a multifarious process controlled by numerous glands and the hormones produced in our body. The hypothalamus in brain makes the pituitary gland to produce certain chemicals to prompt the ovaries to produce the oestrogen and progesterone sex hormones. The menstrual cycle is a technique of bio feedback mechanism, which means the activity of each structure and gland is affected by other gland’s functions. The average span of the menstrual cycle is 28–29 days, which can differ between women themselves from one cycle to the next cycle. Adolescent girls get their menarche between 11 to 14 years of age. The main objective of this review is to assess the literature concerning the various perimenstrual and menstrual problems and its prevalence. Most common symptoms associated with menstruation in adolescents and women are dysmenorrhoea, irregular periods like primary ovarian insufficiency, pelvic inflammatory disorder, heavy menstrual bleeding, uterine fibroids, uterine polyps, Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB), amenorrhea, oligomenorrhoea, polymenorrhoea, hypomenorrhoea, and menstrual migraine. The predicted causes for menstrual problems in both adolescent girls and women are modified lifestyle, improper dietary intake, lack of physical exercise or activity in daily life which may lead to many hormonal imbalances in body. Conclusion of this review revealed that changes in dietary patterns, improved lifestyle with beneficial exercises, maintaining hygiene during menstruation and imparting health and education can help reduce the menstrual problems and improve the quality of life.
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