Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Advances in Genome Editing for Improved Animal Breeding:A Review


Affiliations
1 Division of Animal Biotechnology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Division of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
3 Division of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
 

Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.

Keywords

Animal Breeding, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9, Genome Editing, Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease, Zinc Finger Nucleases.
User
Notifications
Font Size

Abstract Views: 220

PDF Views: 0




  • Advances in Genome Editing for Improved Animal Breeding:A Review

Abstract Views: 220  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

Shakil Ahmad Bhat
Division of Animal Biotechnology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abrar Ahad Malik
Division of Animal Biotechnology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Syed Mudasir Ahmad
Division of Animal Biotechnology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Riaz Ahmad Shah
Division of Animal Biotechnology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Nazir Ahmad Ganai
Division of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Syed Shanaz Shafi
Division of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Nadeem Shabir
Division of Animal Biotechnology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Abstract


Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.

Keywords


Animal Breeding, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9, Genome Editing, Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease, Zinc Finger Nucleases.