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The Clinical Impact of Antimicrobial Resistance Genomics in Competition With She-Camels Recurrent Mastitis Metabolomics Due to Heterogeneous Bacillus licheniformis Field Isolates


Affiliations
1 Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
2 Department of Food Hygiene, Animal Health Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
 

Background and Aim: Recently, cases of mastitis refractory to treatment have been reported frequently. There are limited routine laboratory investigations on Camelidae infections. Mastitis has been estimated to affect more than 25% of lactating she-camel with up to 70% milk loss. The details of Bacillus spp. pathogenesis in mastitis are not yet fully described. The present study is the first detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus licheniformis isolates from recurrent mastitic she-camels with sepsis in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The udders of 100 she-camels were investigated, samples collected from smallholders’ farmers in 10 localities within three governorates in Egypt: Marsa Matrouh, Giza, and Sharkia governorates. The pathogens ascend from udder inducing abortion at different trimesters of pregnancy. Polymerase chain reactions-mediated proofs of identity were applied for diagnostic and taxonomic purposes, where the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the β subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB are the molecular targets.
Results: The genetic elements classified the subspecies to B. licheniformis 61.4%, in addition to, Corynebacterium bovis 29.8%. The somatic cell count (≤1×107 cells/ml) and California mastitis test reactivity (+3 or +4) of milk clinically classified the she-camels population (n=100) under investigation into 50, 20, and 30 as healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitic shecamels, respectively. During bacterial isolation, 80 species were noticed, of which 71.25% (57/80) and 28.75% (23/80) were Gram-positive and negative, respectively, in two clinical forms: Single (40%, n=16/40) and mixed (60%, n=34/40) bacterial infections. In vitro, 100% sensitivity for gentamycin (10 μg) and ofloxacin (5 μg) was noted; however, it was reduced to 50%. Moreover, during in vivo treatments, cloxacillin (5 μg) upraised as the most effective alternative with 90% sensitivity.
Conclusion: Neither recurrent mastitis nor Bacillus species are thoroughly investigated with regard to reproduction performance in Egypt and the usefulness of these strains as antimastitis probiotics. Both persistent bacteremia and dormant endospores were formed but unaffected by standard schemes of antimicrobials injections which proposed the risk of pathogenic bacilli contaminating row milk from apparently healthy she-camel. The discrepancies between treatment results were induced by the resistance that started to develop by the organisms due to frequent and/or faulty use of applied antibiotics.

Keywords

16s rRNA Gene, Antimicrobial Resistance, Bacillus Species, Camelidae, Egypt, Probiotics, Recurrent Mastitis, rpoB Gene.
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  • The Clinical Impact of Antimicrobial Resistance Genomics in Competition With She-Camels Recurrent Mastitis Metabolomics Due to Heterogeneous Bacillus licheniformis Field Isolates

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Authors

Nesreen Allam Tantawy Allam
Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Doaa Sedky
Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Enshrah Khalil Mira
Department of Food Hygiene, Animal Health Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Abstract


Background and Aim: Recently, cases of mastitis refractory to treatment have been reported frequently. There are limited routine laboratory investigations on Camelidae infections. Mastitis has been estimated to affect more than 25% of lactating she-camel with up to 70% milk loss. The details of Bacillus spp. pathogenesis in mastitis are not yet fully described. The present study is the first detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus licheniformis isolates from recurrent mastitic she-camels with sepsis in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The udders of 100 she-camels were investigated, samples collected from smallholders’ farmers in 10 localities within three governorates in Egypt: Marsa Matrouh, Giza, and Sharkia governorates. The pathogens ascend from udder inducing abortion at different trimesters of pregnancy. Polymerase chain reactions-mediated proofs of identity were applied for diagnostic and taxonomic purposes, where the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the β subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB are the molecular targets.
Results: The genetic elements classified the subspecies to B. licheniformis 61.4%, in addition to, Corynebacterium bovis 29.8%. The somatic cell count (≤1×107 cells/ml) and California mastitis test reactivity (+3 or +4) of milk clinically classified the she-camels population (n=100) under investigation into 50, 20, and 30 as healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitic shecamels, respectively. During bacterial isolation, 80 species were noticed, of which 71.25% (57/80) and 28.75% (23/80) were Gram-positive and negative, respectively, in two clinical forms: Single (40%, n=16/40) and mixed (60%, n=34/40) bacterial infections. In vitro, 100% sensitivity for gentamycin (10 μg) and ofloxacin (5 μg) was noted; however, it was reduced to 50%. Moreover, during in vivo treatments, cloxacillin (5 μg) upraised as the most effective alternative with 90% sensitivity.
Conclusion: Neither recurrent mastitis nor Bacillus species are thoroughly investigated with regard to reproduction performance in Egypt and the usefulness of these strains as antimastitis probiotics. Both persistent bacteremia and dormant endospores were formed but unaffected by standard schemes of antimicrobials injections which proposed the risk of pathogenic bacilli contaminating row milk from apparently healthy she-camel. The discrepancies between treatment results were induced by the resistance that started to develop by the organisms due to frequent and/or faulty use of applied antibiotics.

Keywords


16s rRNA Gene, Antimicrobial Resistance, Bacillus Species, Camelidae, Egypt, Probiotics, Recurrent Mastitis, rpoB Gene.