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Reducing Zoonotic and Internal Parasite Burdens in Pigs Using a Pig Confinement System


Affiliations
1 Department of Veterinary Public Health, Udayana University, PB. Sudirman St. Campus, Denpasar, Bali-80223, Indonesia
2 Department of Parasitology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
3 Department of Livestock Production, South Australian Research and Development Institute, Hartley Grove, Urrbrae SA-5064, Australia
4 Department of Parasitology, Center Studies on Animal Diseases Udayana University, Markisa Alleyway of Sesetan St. No. 8 Denpasar, Bali-80223, Indonesia
 

Aim: This study was designed to validate the effectiveness of the pig confinement system (PCS) in reducing the prevalence of zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs.
Materials and Methods: Ten PCS households were selected together with 10 households practising traditional scavenging systems. Five pigs were monitored per household every 3 months for 15 months and blood and feces collected. Pigs received a single dose of oxfendazole at 30 mg/kg at baseline. Qualitative fecal examinations for intestinal parasite stages were performed, and serum was tested for antibodies to cysticercus of Taenia solium, Trichinella spp., and Toxoplasma gondii.
Results: Based on fecal examination, the prevalence of pigs positive for parasite eggs was reduced in PCS pigs over consecutive samplings (Ascaris suum [14.3% to 0%], Trichuris suis [46.9% to 8.3%], Strongyle-type eggs [81.6% to 8.3%], Physocephalus spp. [6.1% to 0%], and Metastrongylus  apri [20.8% to 0%]) compared with increases in the number of pigs positive for parasite eggs in non-PCS pigs (T. suis [20-61.5%], Strongyle-type [60.4-80.8%], Physocephalus spp. [8.3-15.4%], and M. apri [20.8-34.6%]) and little change in pigs positive for A. suum (18.8-19.2%). While the prevalence of pigs with antibodies against to cysticerci of T. solium reduced in PCS pigs from 18% to 14%, the prevalence in non-PCS pigs increased from 42% to 52%. Antibodies to Trichinella were not detected, but the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies increased from 6% to 10% in PCS pigs and from 7% to 24% in non-PCS pigs.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate the potential of a PCS to reduce the prevalence of pigs infected with zoonotic and internal parasites and thus the risk to human and pig health.

Keywords

Confinement, Parasite, Pig, System, Zoonotic.
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  • Reducing Zoonotic and Internal Parasite Burdens in Pigs Using a Pig Confinement System

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Authors

Kadek Karang Agustina
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Udayana University, PB. Sudirman St. Campus, Denpasar, Bali-80223, Indonesia
Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Udayana University, PB. Sudirman St. Campus, Denpasar, Bali-80223, Indonesia
Ida Bagus Made Oka
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Udayana University, PB. Sudirman St. Campus, Denpasar, Bali-80223, Indonesia
I. Made Dwinata
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Udayana University, PB. Sudirman St. Campus, Denpasar, Bali-80223, Indonesia
Rebecca Justin Traub
Department of Parasitology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Colin Cargill
Department of Livestock Production, South Australian Research and Development Institute, Hartley Grove, Urrbrae SA-5064, Australia
I. Made Damriyasa
Department of Parasitology, Center Studies on Animal Diseases Udayana University, Markisa Alleyway of Sesetan St. No. 8 Denpasar, Bali-80223, Indonesia

Abstract


Aim: This study was designed to validate the effectiveness of the pig confinement system (PCS) in reducing the prevalence of zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs.
Materials and Methods: Ten PCS households were selected together with 10 households practising traditional scavenging systems. Five pigs were monitored per household every 3 months for 15 months and blood and feces collected. Pigs received a single dose of oxfendazole at 30 mg/kg at baseline. Qualitative fecal examinations for intestinal parasite stages were performed, and serum was tested for antibodies to cysticercus of Taenia solium, Trichinella spp., and Toxoplasma gondii.
Results: Based on fecal examination, the prevalence of pigs positive for parasite eggs was reduced in PCS pigs over consecutive samplings (Ascaris suum [14.3% to 0%], Trichuris suis [46.9% to 8.3%], Strongyle-type eggs [81.6% to 8.3%], Physocephalus spp. [6.1% to 0%], and Metastrongylus  apri [20.8% to 0%]) compared with increases in the number of pigs positive for parasite eggs in non-PCS pigs (T. suis [20-61.5%], Strongyle-type [60.4-80.8%], Physocephalus spp. [8.3-15.4%], and M. apri [20.8-34.6%]) and little change in pigs positive for A. suum (18.8-19.2%). While the prevalence of pigs with antibodies against to cysticerci of T. solium reduced in PCS pigs from 18% to 14%, the prevalence in non-PCS pigs increased from 42% to 52%. Antibodies to Trichinella were not detected, but the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies increased from 6% to 10% in PCS pigs and from 7% to 24% in non-PCS pigs.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate the potential of a PCS to reduce the prevalence of pigs infected with zoonotic and internal parasites and thus the risk to human and pig health.

Keywords


Confinement, Parasite, Pig, System, Zoonotic.