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Dermatophilus congolensis Infection in Sheep and Goats in Delta Region of Tamil Nadu


Affiliations
1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu-614625, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu-614625, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
 

Aim: The study was conducted to isolate and identify Dermatophilus congolensis (DC) using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in scab materials collected from skin infections of sheep and goats in the Delta region of Tamil Nadu.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 scab samples collected from 18 goats and 2 sheep from Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, and Tiruvarur districts of Tamil Nadu. Smears were made from softened scab materials and stained by either Gram’s or Giemsa staining. Isolation was attempted on blood agar plates, and colonies were stained by Gram’s staining for morphological identification. Identification was also done by biochemical tests and confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the amplified product.
Results: The peculiar laddering arrangement of coccoid forms in stained smears prepared from scab materials revealed the presence of DC. Isolated colonies from scab materials of sheep and goats on bovine blood agar plate were small, hemolytic, rough, adherent, and bright orange-yellow in color, but some colonies were white to cream color. Gram-staining of cultured organisms revealed Gram-positive branching filaments with various disintegration stages of organisms. 16S rRNA PCR yielded 500 bp amplicon specific for DC. Sequence analysis of a sheep DC isolate showed 99-100% sequence homology with other DC isolates available in NCBI database, and phylogenetic tree showed a close cluster with DC isolates of Congo, Nigeria, and Angola of Africa. Genes for virulence factors such as serine protease and alkaline ceramidase could not be detected by PCR in any of the DC strains isolated of this study.
Conclusion: The presence of dermatophilosis in Tamil Nadu was established from this study.

Keywords

16S rRNA Sequence Analysis, Dermatophilus congolensis, Sheep and Goats, Tamil Nadu.
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  • Dermatophilus congolensis Infection in Sheep and Goats in Delta Region of Tamil Nadu

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Authors

M. Ananda Chitra
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu-614625, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
K. Jayalakshmi
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu-614625, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
P. Ponnusamy
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu-614625, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
R. Manickam
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu-614625, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
B. S. M. Ronald
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu-614625, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract


Aim: The study was conducted to isolate and identify Dermatophilus congolensis (DC) using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in scab materials collected from skin infections of sheep and goats in the Delta region of Tamil Nadu.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 scab samples collected from 18 goats and 2 sheep from Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, and Tiruvarur districts of Tamil Nadu. Smears were made from softened scab materials and stained by either Gram’s or Giemsa staining. Isolation was attempted on blood agar plates, and colonies were stained by Gram’s staining for morphological identification. Identification was also done by biochemical tests and confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the amplified product.
Results: The peculiar laddering arrangement of coccoid forms in stained smears prepared from scab materials revealed the presence of DC. Isolated colonies from scab materials of sheep and goats on bovine blood agar plate were small, hemolytic, rough, adherent, and bright orange-yellow in color, but some colonies were white to cream color. Gram-staining of cultured organisms revealed Gram-positive branching filaments with various disintegration stages of organisms. 16S rRNA PCR yielded 500 bp amplicon specific for DC. Sequence analysis of a sheep DC isolate showed 99-100% sequence homology with other DC isolates available in NCBI database, and phylogenetic tree showed a close cluster with DC isolates of Congo, Nigeria, and Angola of Africa. Genes for virulence factors such as serine protease and alkaline ceramidase could not be detected by PCR in any of the DC strains isolated of this study.
Conclusion: The presence of dermatophilosis in Tamil Nadu was established from this study.

Keywords


16S rRNA Sequence Analysis, Dermatophilus congolensis, Sheep and Goats, Tamil Nadu.