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Several studies have simulated and studied the phenomenon of toppling failure caused by open-pit excavation. However, these studies do not involve or neglect the interpretation of some special geometric characteristics and laws of this deformation. Only by understanding the subtle geometric characteristics and geometric laws of slope toppling failure, can we understand the conditions, processes and mechanisms of such deformation. In this study, a soft material, small model, deformable element method is successfully used to simulate the phenomenon of the bending each layer element from the lower part of the slope to the upper, with the dislocation distance (scraps on the slope) being bigger. This method overcomes the short-coming of the rigid body element that traditional methods cannot simulate. Finally, the conditions and mechanism of this phenomenon are further analysed and explained by structural unit of inclined composite cantilever and elastic theory. Under the action of the body force component fx which is parallel to the longitudinal direction of the cantilever, the geometric characteristics of the single cantilever in the composite cantilever are changed such that the upper part of it is narrowed and the lower part of it is widened. Under the action of the body force component fy which is perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cantilever, the cantilever is bent. Under the action of these two body force components, the composite cantilever is bent as a whole after open-pit excavation. Because of the change in the geometric shape of the cantilever, any single cantilever has a larger deflection than the other single cantilever below it; that is, greater the deflection of each cantilever along the slope upwards, greater is the curvature of the corresponding point. Finally from the lower part of the slope to the upper, the scraps on the slope are bigger.


Cantilever Beam, Elastic Theory, Geometric Characteristics, Rigid Body Element, Soft Material Small Model, Toppling Failure.
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