Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

Study of Heavy Metals and their Effects on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Workers of Fuel Station on Hilla City-Iraq


Affiliations
1 Department of Laboratory and Clinical Sciences, College of pharmacy, University of Babylon, Iraq
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


Heavy metals are chemical elements that have a specific gravity at least five times that of water. Some heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium have hazardous effects on human health. These metals become toxic when an increase from the normal level allowed. Many workers are exposed to heavy metals in the fuel stations. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of some heavy metals (pb and Cd) on oxidant (MDA) and antioxidants (TAC, SOD, Zn, Cu, and Mg, Vit. C and Vit. K) in workers of fuel station compared with healthy control group in Hilla city- Iraq. The study was conducted on different area of Hilla city fuel stations. The study included 60 workers who have been working for at least 6 months, all of them were males. Sixty healthy volunteers serve as healthy control group, also all of them were males. Aged between (18) and (50) years for workers and control group. The results revealed that Pb and Cd and MDA levels significantly higher in the blood of workers than healthy controls (p <0.01) respectively. This study also found a significant decrease in the levels of TAC, SOD, Zn, Cu, and Mg, Vit. C and Vit.K in the blood of workers than healthy controls at (p <0.05) respectively. The present study suggests the exposure to heavy metal pollution in the work place (fuel stations) led to increase in the oxidative stress in workers which decreased the antioxidant levels.

Keywords

Fuel Station Workers, Heavy Metals, Trace Elements, Antioxidants, Oxidative Stress.
Subscription Login to verify subscription
User
Notifications
Font Size


  • Abdullull-Wahab SA. Source characterization of atmospheric heavy metals in industrial residential areas: A case study in Oman. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2004; 54(4): 425-31.
  • Lidsky TI, Schneider JS. Lead neurotoxicity in children: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. Brain. 2003; 126(1): 5-19.
  • WHO. Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds. Environmental Health Criteria 224 Geneva: World Health Organization. 2001.
  • Fairhurst S. Hazard and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in the occupational context in Europe. Food ChemToxicol.2003; 41(11): 1453-62.
  • Bachanek T, Staroslawska E, Wolanska E, Jarmolinska K. Heavy metal poisoning in glass worker characterized by severe. Ann AgricEnviro Med.2000; 7(1): 51-3.
  • Anetor JI, Adelaja O, Adekunle AO. Serum micronutrient levels, nucleic acid metabolism antioxidant defenses in pregnant Nigerians: Implications for fetal and maternal health. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2003; 32(3): 257- 62.
  • Guallar E, Sanz-Gallardo MI, Vanut Veer P, et al. Heavy Metals and Myocardial Infarction Study Group. Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347(22): 1747-54.
  • MortadaW.I., Sobh M.A., El-Defrawy M.M., FarahatS.E., Study of lead exposure from automobile exhaust as a risk for nephrotoxicity among traffic policemen, Am J Nephro, 2001; 21(4), 274-9.
  • Georgieva T, Michailova A, Panev T, et al. Possibilities to control the health risk of petrochemical workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2002; 75:21–6.
  • Fabiani R, Bartolomeo A, Morozzi G. Involvement of oxygen free radicals in the serum-mediated increase of benzoquinone genotoxicity. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005; 46:156–63.
  • Burtis CA. and Ash wood ER." Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry " 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders comp., Tokyo, 1999; pp: 1034-1054.
  • Hong Y.C., Park E.Y., Park M.S., Ko J.A., Oh S.Y. and Kim H., et al. Community-level exposure to chemicals and oxidative stress in adult population. ToxicolLett., 2009; 184, 139–44.
  • Bae S., Pan X., Kim S. et al., Exposures to particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxidative stress in school children, Environ Health Perspect, 2010; 118(4), 579–583.
  • B. Halliwell, "Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Human Disease: Curiosity, Cause, or Consequence? "Lancet, 1994; 344, pp:721-724.
  • Ji X. and Ren, J. Determination of copper and zinc in serum by Derivation atomic absorption spectrometry using the micro sampling technique, Analyst, 127, 2002; pp: 416-419.
  • Soad M. Mosad, Assad A. Ghanem, Hossam M. El-Fallal, Amr M. El-KannishyAzza A. El Baiomy, Amany M. Al – Diasty, and Lamiaa F. Arafa., Lens Cadmium, Lead, and Serum Vitamins C, E, and Beta Carotene in Cataractous Smoking Patients, Current Eye Research, 2010; 35(1), pp: 23–30.
  • Koracevic D., koracevic G., Djordjeric V., Andrejevic S. and Cosic V., "Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in humanfluids " J Clinpathol, 2001; 54, pp: 356-361.
  • Winter boun CC., Hawking RE, BrainM. and Carrel RW. " Determination of superoxid dismutase "J. Lab. Clin. Med, 1975; 2, pp: 337-341.
  • Emmerie A. and Engel C., Serum total tocopherol estimation by colorimetric method, Nature, (1938); 142, 873.
  • Roe J.H. and Kuther C.H., The determination of dehydroascorbic acid and ascorbic acid in plant tissues by the 2, 4-dinitophenylhydrazine method, J.Biol.Chem., 1943; 147, 399.
  • Reena N, Deepti P, Ashok K, et al. Trace elements and antioxidant enzymes associated with oxidative stress in the preeclamptic/ eclamptic mothers during fetal circulation. Clinical nutrition. 2012; 31(6):946-50.
  • Al-Rudainy LaithAbdelmajeed; Blood lead level among fuel station workers. Oman Med J. Jul; 2010; 25(3): 208–211.
  • Al-Shamri Amer M. J, Rash S. Nama, Ahmed W. Radhi, Furkan M. Odda Determination of lead, copper, iron, and zinc in blood of fuel station worker at Al –Najaf city, Iragi Academic Scientic journals, (2010); p 1-10.
  • Bahrami A R, Mahjub H, Assari M J A. Study of the relationship between ambient lead and blood lead. among gasoline-station workers. Iranian J. Publ. Health, (2002); Vol. 31, Nos. 3-4, p: 92-95.
  • Freije Afnan Mahmood and Maheen Ghuloom Dairi. Determination of blood lead levels in adult Bahraini citizens prior to the introduction of unleaded gasoline and the possible effect of elevated blood lead levels on the serum immunoglobulin IgG. Bahrain Medical Bulletin, (2009); Vol. 31, No., p: 1-8.
  • Adnan J.M. AL-Fartosy, Nadhum A. Awad and Sanaa K. Shanan. Biochemical Correlation between Some Heavy Metals, Malondialdehyde and Total Antioxidant Capacity in blood of Gasoline Station Workers. International Research Journal of Environment. 2014; Vol. 3(9), 56-60.
  • YakubMohsin, Mohammed PerwaizIqbal, NaseemaMehbob Ali, GhulamHaider and IqbalAzam. Blood lead and plasma homocysteine in petrol pump workers in Karachi: role of vitamins B6, B12, folate and C. J.Chem.Soc. Pak., (2009); vol.31 (2). P: 319-323.
  • Schafer B H, Glas T A, Bressler J, Todd A C, and Schwartz B S.Environmental health prospective, 2005; 11, 31.
  • Patockova, J.;MarholP.; TumovaE.; KrisiakM.; RokytaR.; StipekS.; Crkovská J. and Andel M. Oxidative stress in the brain tissue of laboratory mice with acute post insulin hypoglycemia. Physiol Res. 2000, 52: 131-5.
  • Chen Y. Effects of benzene on lipid peroxidation and the activity of relevant enzymes in humans. Chin J Prevent Med; 1992, 26:336–8.
  • Georgieva T, Michailova A, Panev T, Popov T. Possibilities to control the health risk of petrochemical workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health; 2002, 75:21–26.
  • Moro A, Charão M, Brucker N, Durgante J, Baierle M, Bubols G, Goethel G, Fracasso R, Nascimento S, Bulcão R, Gauer B, Barth A, Bochi G, Moresco R, GiodaA, Salvador M, Farsky S, Garcia SC.Genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gasoline station attendants. Mutat Res.; 2013: 754(1-2):63-70.
  • Uzma N, Kumar B and Hazari M. Exposure to Benzene Induces Oxidative Stress, Alters the Immune Response and Expression of p53 in Gasoline Filling Workers. Am. JIndus. Med.2010, 53:1264–70.
  • Pan C, Chan C, Huang Y, Wuu KY. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and malondialdehyde in male workers in Chinese restaurants. Occup Environ Med.2008, 65(11): 732–35.
  • Emara A and El-Bahrawy H. Green Tea Attenuates Benzene-Induced Oxidative Stress in Pump Workers. Immunotoxicology; 2008, 5(1): 69-80.
  • Abou El-Magd S, El-Gohary S, Hammam R. Biological Assessment of exposure to Benzene among Petrol Stations’ Workers in Zagazig City by using Trans, trans-Muconic Acid as Urinary Indicator. Egy. J.Occup. Med. 2010, 34(2):171-81.
  • Chan A. C. Partners in defence, Vitamin E and Vitamin C. CCan J PhysiolPhamacol. 1993; 71:725 - 31.
  • Basso A, Elia G, Petrozzi M, Zefferino R. Oxidative stress in station service workers. G Ital Med LavErgon 2004; 26(3):197-201.
  • Nazia U, Santhosh BK, Mohammed AH. Exposure to benzene induces oxidative stress, alters the immune response and expression of p53 in gasoline filling workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2010; Volume 53(Issue 12):1264–70.
  • Rai RR, Phadke MS. Plasma oxidant-antioxidant status in different respiratory disorders. Indian J ClinBiochem 2006; 21(2):161-164.
  • Luay A. Al-Helaly and Tareq Y. Ahmed. Antioxidants and Some Biochemical Parameters in Workers Exposed to Petroleum Station Pollutants in Mosul City, Iraq. Int. Res. J. Environment Sci. (2014); Vol. 3(1), 31-37.

Abstract Views: 3

PDF Views: 0




  • Study of Heavy Metals and their Effects on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Workers of Fuel Station on Hilla City-Iraq

Abstract Views: 3  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

Safa W. Azize
Department of Laboratory and Clinical Sciences, College of pharmacy, University of Babylon, Iraq

Abstract


Heavy metals are chemical elements that have a specific gravity at least five times that of water. Some heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium have hazardous effects on human health. These metals become toxic when an increase from the normal level allowed. Many workers are exposed to heavy metals in the fuel stations. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of some heavy metals (pb and Cd) on oxidant (MDA) and antioxidants (TAC, SOD, Zn, Cu, and Mg, Vit. C and Vit. K) in workers of fuel station compared with healthy control group in Hilla city- Iraq. The study was conducted on different area of Hilla city fuel stations. The study included 60 workers who have been working for at least 6 months, all of them were males. Sixty healthy volunteers serve as healthy control group, also all of them were males. Aged between (18) and (50) years for workers and control group. The results revealed that Pb and Cd and MDA levels significantly higher in the blood of workers than healthy controls (p <0.01) respectively. This study also found a significant decrease in the levels of TAC, SOD, Zn, Cu, and Mg, Vit. C and Vit.K in the blood of workers than healthy controls at (p <0.05) respectively. The present study suggests the exposure to heavy metal pollution in the work place (fuel stations) led to increase in the oxidative stress in workers which decreased the antioxidant levels.

Keywords


Fuel Station Workers, Heavy Metals, Trace Elements, Antioxidants, Oxidative Stress.

References