Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Allelopathi Effect of the Leaf Extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi (Sedr), Salix fragilis L. and Ricinus communis L. on Seed Germination Percentage of Triticumae stivum L. in Iraq
This study investigated the effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of Zizyphuss pina-christi (Sedr.), Salixfragilis L., and Ricinus communis L. on seed germination percentage of (wheat) Triticumae stivum L. Boiled water and alcohol were used to prepare different concentrations of leaf extracts (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) and control. Results showed that the effects of alcoholic leaf extracts of Zizyphuss pina-chris L, Salix fragilis L and Ricinus communis L on seed germination percentage were superior over those of the control (distilled water). Moreover, the alcoholic leaf extract of Zizyphus exerted the highest impact on seed germination percentage. Increased concentration of all leaf extracts inhibited seed germination, except under 20% alcoholic leaf extract of Zizyphus, which showed the opposite effect, which in turn reflected the increase in other growth parameters.
Zizyphus spina-christi (Sedr.), Salix fragilis L., Ricinus communis, Triticumae stivum L.
- Al Hasnawi, G. S and Baqire A .A (1989).The jungle and methods control. Ministry of higher education. Mosel University. [Ali, a (1980). Agricultural pest control guide. The first edition. Ministry Of Agriculture. General Authority for Crop Protection, Research Department Prevention: 80-83.
- AL Issawi, Y. A (1998). Plant waste and methods of tillage in the growth and productivity of rice and wheat and the impact of successive Najaf province. Master Thesis - Girls College of Education University of Kufa.
- Al Younis, A .H, Ahmed M. A and Ahmed Z. A (1987) National Library of cereal crops for printing Directorate and publishing. University of Al Mosul.
- Al Hassan, A.Q.A (1996). Compared with chemical methods in agricultural weeds resistant to the wheat crop in the Valley Hadramout agricultural magazine Parents (2): 223-232.
- Khalil, M. T (2002). Feedstuffs used in poultry feed. Sources of carbohydrates. Poultry Middle East- (164): 53-56.
- Shaaban, A and navigator, N. M (1993). Pesticides Mosul University Press: 520.
- Bhatt, B. P., Kumar, M., and Todaria, N. P. (1997). Studies on the allelopathic effects of terminalias Garhwal Hiamalaya J. Sustainable Agriculture, 11(1): 71-84.
- [Chou, C.H, chiang, Y.C and cheng, H.H (1981). Auto in to oxidation mechanisms of oryza sativa Effects of temperature on phy to oxidation mechanisms oforyza sativa .III .Effects of temperature straw decomposition in soil .j. cham .Ecol. 97 741- 752.
- Dhima, K.V., I.B. Vasilakoglou, I.G. Eleftherohorinos, and A.S. Lithourgidis. 2006. Allelopathic potential of winter cereals and their cover rop mulch effect on grass weed suppression and corn development. Crop Sci. 46:345–352.
- Harbon, J.B. (1981). Phyto chemical methods Aguide to modern techigues s of plants analysis. 2nd. Chap man and hall, London, New York: 282.
- Josho, D.N and Cupta, S.C.(1980).Studies on seed mycoflora and its role in causing disease of echinochlog frumentaceae .Ind.Phytopath.33(3):433-435.
- Macias, F.A, Olvo, R.M, Simeonet, A.M .and Galinab, J.C (1998) .What are allelo chemicals? In: Olofsdotter, M. editor Alleloopathy in rice proceeding of the work shop on allelopathy in rice, 25- 2 Nov, 1996. Manila (Philippines). IRRS. PP -69-70.
- Marcı´as, F.A., J.C.G. Galindo, J.M.G. Molindo, and H.G. Cutler (Ed.). 2004. Allelopathy: Chemistry and mode of action of allelochemicals. CRC Press, New York.
- Rice, E.L. (1984). Allelopathy. 2nd. Academic press. New York.
- Rizivi, S.J. and Rizivi, V. (1992). Allelopathy Basic and APPlide Aspects .chapman and hall press. London.
- Vasilakoglou, I., K. Dhima, and I. Eleftherohorinos. 2005. Allelopathic potential of Bermudagrass and Johnsongrass and their interference with cotton and corn. Agron. J. 97: 303-313.
- Weston, K (2000) the effects of Eucalyptus and Oak leaf extracts on California native plants .http://www. blachsic.co.uk.
- Wickens, G.T (2001) .Economic Botany . priciples and practices . Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht. Boston. London.
- Bulus, A and Abdul Kaita H (2007). Studies on the use of Zizyphusspina-chris against pain in rats and mice. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (11), pp. 1317-1324
- Yulia A. Kuzovkina and Martin F. Quigley, 2004.willowbeyondwelt lands: uses of Salix L. species for environmental projects. Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The Ohio State University.
-  Amir, K and Manisha, S (2016). Medicinal Importance of Ricinus communis (Arandi). Dept. of Biotechnology and Biochemistry.
- S. Q. Dong, Y. Q. MA, H. WU, J. F. Shuiland Z. Q (2012). Stimulatory effects of wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) on seed germination of Orobanche minor. Allelopathy Journal 30 (2): 247-258 .International Allelopathy Foundation.
- Soheila, P. G and Sirous, H. R (2012).Allelopathic Effects of Wheat Seed Extracts on Seed and Seedling Growth of Eight Selected Weed Species. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences.
Abstract Views: 36
PDF Views: 0