Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Haplotype and Allelic Variations at Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD2) among Six Austro-Asiatic Speaking Tribal Groups of Central India
Central India is mainly constituted by two states, namely; Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh that are homeland of several caste and tribal groups speaking diverse language belongs to Indo-European, Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic thus makes it an important place for testing several language-gene interaction models. Various archaeological evidences indicated that the Narmada region has played a significant role in initial peopling of the Asian subcontinent. There is a necessity to fill the big lacuna by inclusion of this region to reveal a continuous picture of the origin and genetic affinity of the Indian population. It is hypothesized that Austro-Asiatic speaking tribes are autochthonous to India. The present study was conducted to examine the haplotype variations at Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD2) in the Austro-Asiatic Speaking Tribal Groups of Central India. Haplotypes provide information on evolutionary histories, beyond what can be learned from individual marker. A total of 327 unrelated samples belonging to Birhor, Gadaba, Kol, Hill korwa, Saora and Baiga were analyzed for three selected TaqI sites of DRD2 gene using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The frequency of ancestral allele B2 is less than 50% in all six populations (41.4-49.2%) while D2 allele exhibit frequency of 15.3-44.8%. A1 allele observed with a frequency ranging from 36.2-48.2%. The average heterozygosity ranged from 0.417 in Baiga to 0.501 in Kol. The ancestral haplotype (B2D2A1) in all six populations exhibit 0% frequency. LD values calculated for the three bi-allelic sites, TaqIB, TaqID, and TaqIA are low, i.e., below 0.8 with respect to all populations in each pair. Overall, allele frequency distribution patterns and high average heterozygosity values, suggest a genetic proximity among the studied populations. Low recurrence of genealogical alleles and nonattendance of familial haplotype in the examined populace bunches, demonstrating towards indigenous inception of Central Indian Austro-Asiatic talking tribes.
Austro-Asiatic, DRD2, Haplotype, PVTG, Polymorphic, Central India.
- Drysdale CM, McGraw DW, Stack CB, Stephens JC, Judson RS, Nandabalan K, et al. Complex promoter and coding region beta 2-adrenergic receptor haplotypes alter receptor expression and predict in vivo responsiveness. Proceedings of the National Academic Sciences of USA 2000; 97: 10483–8.
- Martin ER, Monks SA, Warren LL, Kaplan NL (2000) A test for linkage an association in general pedigrees: The Pedigree Disequilibrium Test. Am J Hum Genet 67:146–154.
- Morris, R.W. and Kaplan, N.L. (2002) On the advantage of haplotype analysis in the presence of multiple disease susceptibility alleles. Genet Epidemiol 23, 221–233.
- Zhang K, Deng M, Chen T, Waterman MS, Sun F. 2002. A dynamic programming algorithm for haplotype block partitioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:7335–7339.
- Zhang J, Rowe WL, Clark AG, Buetow KH. 2003. Genome wide distribution of high-frequency, completely mismatching SNP haplotype pairs observed to be common across human populations. Am J Hum Genet 73:1073–1081.
- Stephens M, Smith NJ, Donnelly P. 2001b. A new statistical method for haplotype reconstruction from population data. Am J Hum Genet 68:978–989.
- Zhao LP, Li SS, Khalid N. 2003. A method for the assessment of disease associations with single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes and environmental variables in case-control studies. Am J Hum Genet, 72, pp. 1231–1250.
- Horikawa Y, Oda N, Cox NJ, Li X, Orho-Melander M, Hara M, Hinokio Y, Lindner TH, Mashima H, Schwarz PE, del Bosque-Plata L, Oda Y, Yoshiuchi I, Colilla S, Polonsky KS, Wei S, Concannon P, Iwasaki N, Schulze J, Baier LJ, Bogardus C, Groop L, Boerwinkle E, Hanis CL, Bell GI (2000) Genetic variation in the gene encoding calpain-10 is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Genet 26:163–175.
- Joosten Paul HLJ, Toepoel Mascha, Mariman Edwin CM, Zoelen Everardus JJVan.2001. Promoter haplotype combinations of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor gene predispose to human neural tube defects. Nature Genetics - 27, 215 – 217.
- Kidd KK, Morar B, Castiglione CM, Zhao H, Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Bonne-Tamir B, Lu RB, Goldman D, Lee C, Nam YS, Grandy DK, Jenkins T, Kidd JR. 1998. A global survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus. Hum Genet 103:211–227.
- Moises HW, Gelernter J, Giuffra LA, Zarconi V, Civelli O, Wetterberg L, Kidd KK, Cavalli-Sforza LL. 1991. No linkage between D2-dopamine receptor gene region and schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:643–647.
- Su Y, Burke J, O’Neill FA, Murphy B, Nie L, Kipps B, Bray J, Shinkwin R, Nuallain MN, MacLean CJ, Walsh D, Diehl SR, Kendler KS.1993.Exclusion of linkage between schizophrenia and the D2 dopamine receptor gene region of chromosome 11q in 112 Irish multiplex families. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:205–211.
- Gelernter J, Pakstis AJ, Pauls DL, Kurlan R, Gancher ST, Civelli O, Grandy D, Kidd KK .1990. Tourette syndrome is not linked to D2 receptor. Arch Gen Psychiatry 47:1073–1077.
- Gelernter P, Ram A, Gelernter J, Friedman E, Cao Q, Pickar D, Blum K, Noble EP, Kranzler HR, O’Malley S, Hamer DH, Whitsitt F, Rao P, DeLisi LE, Virkkunen M, Linnoila M, Goldman D, Gershon ES.1994. No structural mutation in the dopamine D2 r eceptor gene in alcoholism or schizophrenia. JAMA 271:204–208.
- Grandy DK, Litt M, Allen L, Bunzow JR, Marchionni M, Makam H, Reed L, Magenis RE, Civelli O.1989. The human dopamine D2 receptor gene is located on chromosome 11 at q 22-q23 and identifies a TaqI RFLP. Am J Hum Genet 45:778–785.
- Hauge X, Grandy D, Eubanks J, Evans G, Civelli O, Litt M. 1991.Detection and characterization of additional DNA polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor gene. Genomics 10:527–530.
- Parsian A, Fisher L, O’Malley K, Todd R.1991. A new TaqI RFLP within intron 2 of human dopamine D2 receptor gene. Nucleic Acids Res 19:6977.
- Templeton AR. 2005. Haplotype trees and modern human origins. Am J Phys Anthropol Suppl 41:33–59.
- Castiglione CM, Deinard AS, Speed WC, Sirugo G, Rosenbaum HC, Zhang Y, Grandy DK, Girgorenko EL, Bonne-Tamir B, Pakstis AJ, Kidd JR, Kidd KK.1995. Evolution of haplotypes at the DRD2 locus. Am J Hum Genet 57:1445–1456.
- Tishkoff SA, Pakstis AJ, Stoneking M, Kidd JR, Destro-Bisol G, Sanjantila A, Lu R-b, Deinard AS, Sirugo G, Jenkins T, Kidd KK, Clark AG. 2000. Short tandem-repeat polymorphism/Alu haplotype variation at the PLAT locus: implications for mode human origins. Am J Hum Genet 67:901–925.
- Lonjou C, Collins A, Morton NE. 1999. Allelic association between marker loci. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:1621–1626.
- Lonjou C, Zhang W, Collins A, Tapper WJ, Elahi E, Maniatis N, Morton NE. 2003. Linkage disequilibrium in human populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:6069–6074.
- Miller SA, Dykes DD, Polesky HF. 1988. A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Res 16:215.
- Kidd KK, Pakstis AJ, Castiglione CM, Kidd JR, Speed WC, Goldman D, Knowler WC, Lu RB, Bonne-Tamir B. 1996. DRD2 haplotypes containing the TaqI A1 allele: implications for alcoholism research. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 20:697–705.
- Nei M. 1973. Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:3321–3323.
- Ota T. 1993. DISPAN: computer program for genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. United States: Institute of Molecular and Evolutionary Genetics, Pennsylvania State University.
- Majumdar P, Majumder PP. 1999. HAPLOPOP: a computer program package to estimate haplotype frequencies from genotype frequencies via the EM algorithm. Kolkata: Indian Statistical Institute. AHGU Tech Rep 1/99.1999.
- Hill WG. 1974. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium in randomly mating populations. Heredity 33:229–239.
- R Software. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/labdsv/labdsv.
- ALFRED Database. U.S. National Science Foundation. https://alfred.med.yale.edu/
- Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S. 2005. Arlequin, version 3.11: an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol Bioinform Online 1:47–50.
- Saraswathy KN, Meitei SY, Murry B, Devi Kiranmala N, Sinha Ekata, Gupta Vipin, Mukhopadhyay Rupak, Mohammad Asghar, Nongthomban Achoubi Devi, Khangenbam Somibabu Meitei, Sachdeva Mohinder P. 2009b. Population severance in Manipur at DRD2 locus.Genet Test Mol Bio-markers. Volume 13 (6).
- Kshatriya GK, Aggarwal A, Khurana P, Singh Huidrom S, Italia Yazdi M, Saraswathy, Kallur N, Ghosh Pradeep K. 2010. Genomic and linguistic affinities: a study of allelic and haplotype diversity at DRD2 locus among the tribes of Gujarat, western India. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers, 14(2), 215-223.
- Vishwanathan H, Edwin D, Usha-Rani MV, Majumder PP. 2003. A survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus in the Nilgiri hill tribes, South India. Curr Sci 84:566–570.
- Bhaskar LV, Thangaraj K, Mulligan CJ, Rao AP, Pardhasaradhi G, Kumar KP, Shah AM, Sabeera B, Reddy AG, Singh L, Rao VR. 2008. Allelic variation and haplotype structure of the dopamine receptor gene DRD2 in nine Indian populations. Genet Test 12:153–160.
- Prabhakaran K, Ramesh A, Usha Rani MV, Majumder PP. 2008. Did human DRD2 haplotypes originate in India? A survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium in the tribes of Eastern Ghats, South India. Curr Sci 94:1589–1594.
- Saraswathy KN, Mukhopadhyay R, Shukla D, et al. 2009c. Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at DRD2 locus-a study on four population groups of Andhra Pradesh, India. Genet Test 13:115–119.
- Sinha Moumita, Temunkar Pankaj Kumar, Gajendra Pragya, Mitra Mitashree. 2015. Human Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) Polymorphisms among Four Tribal Populations of Chhattisgarh, India. Asian Man (The) - An International Journal. 9(1):40- 46.
- Panmei Tabitha, Kameih Gangaina, Mitra Siuli, Kshatriya Gautam K. 2016. Allelic Variation and Haplotype Structure of the Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD2 in Naga Tribes of Manipur, India. International Journal of Science and Research. Volume 5(1).
- Wolpoff MH, Caspari R. 1996. Race and human evolution: a fatal attraction. New York: Simon and Schuster.
- Flegontova OV, Khrunin AV, lylova OI, Tarskaia LA, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Limorska SA. 2009. Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in the populations of the east European plain. BMC Genet 10:62.
Abstract Views: 17
PDF Views: 0