Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
A Study of Post-mortem Histo-pathological Findings in Snake Bite Poisoning
Snake bite remains an underestimated cause of accidental death in modern India.The snakes most commonly associated with human mortality in India are cobra (Naja naja naja), krait (Bungarus caeruleus), Russell's viper (Vipera russelli) and saw scaled viper (Echis carinatus). With approximately 45900 deaths occurring annually in India, a large proportion of snake bites occur when people work barefoot in the fields or while walking at night or early morning through fields or along roads. The study was carried out over a period of 2-year (January 2010-December 2011), where 1,637 autopsies were performed. Out of these forty three autopsies (2.62%) performed were deaths due to snake bite. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Males succumbed to snake bites twice frequently (60.46%) when compared to females (39.53%). The age ranged between 01-61 years (16.27% of them belonged to the 1-12 years of age-group, 69.76% belonged to 13-40 years of age group and 13.95% belonged to 41-61 years of age group). The fang marks was seen in 28 cases on the lower extremities. There was congestion of lungs, intestine, cardiac tissue and especially kidneys. The major cause of death was renal failure.
Autopsy, Acute Renal Failure, Envenomation, Histopathology, Ophitoxaemia
- Whitaker R, Captain A: Snakes of India: The Field Guide. Chennai: Draco Books. 2004: pp:495.
- Mathew JL, Gera T: Ophitoxaemia (venomous snake bite): Available at: http://www.priory.com/ med/ophitoxaemia.htm
- Government of India, Central Bureau of Health Intelligence. Health Status Indicators, National Health Profile 2007 and 2008(Provisional): 126.96.36.199 State/UT wise Cases and Deaths Due to Snake Bite in India: pp:107-108.
- Mohapatra B, Warrell DA, Suraweera W, Bhatia P, Dhingra N, et al: Snakebite Mortality in India: A Nationally Representative Mortality Survey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(4): 2011: pp:1018.
- WHO.Snakebite: Available at: http:// www.who.int / neglected_diseases / diseases / snakebites / en / index.html
- Brunda G., Sashidhar RB: Epidemiological profile of snake-bite cases from Andhra Pradesh using immunoanalytical approach: Indian J Med Res 125, May 2007, pp 661-668.
- Mulay DV, Kulkarni VA, Kulkarni SG, Kulkarni ND, Jaju RB: Clinical profile of snakebites at SRTR Medical College Hospital, Ambajogai (Maharashtra). Indian Medical Gazette 1986; 131: pp:363-366.
- Selvanayagam ZE, Gnanavendhan SG, Ganesh KA, Rajagopal D, Subba Rao PV: ELISA for the detection of venoms from four medically important snakes of India. Toxicon 1999; 37 : pp:757-770.
- Cox JC, Moisidis AV, Shepherd JM, Drane DP, Jones SL: A novel format for a rapid sandwich EIA and its application of the identification of snake venoms: J Immunol Method 1992; 146 : pp:213-218.
- Huang YP, Yu YJ, Hung DZ: Sandwich enzymelinked immunosorbent assay for Taiwan cobra venom. Vet HumToxicol 2002; 44 : pp:200-204.
- Dong LV, Quyen LK, Eng KH, Gopalakrishnakone P: Immunogenicity of venoms from four common snakes in the South of Vietnam and development ELISA kit for venom detection. J Immunol Method 2003; 282 : pp:13-31.
- Srihari PLD, Rotti SB, Danabalan M, Akshay K: Epidemiological profile of snake bite cases admitted in JIPMER hospital. Indian J Community Med: 2001;26 : pp:336-8.
- Chugh KS, Pal Y, Chakravarty RN, Dutta BN, Mehta R, Sabhiya R, Mondal AK, Sommers S C et al: Acute renal failure following poisonous snake bite. Am J Kidney Disease:1984; 4: pp:30-38.
- Mittal BV: cute renal failure following poisonous snakebite. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine:1994; 40(3): pp:123-126.
- Ali G, Kak M, Kumar M, Bali SK, Tak SI, Hassan G, Wadhwa MB: Acute renal failure following Echis carinata (saw scaled viper) envenomation. Indian Journal of Nephrology: 2004; 14: pp:177-181
- Mukhopadhyay PP., Ghosh S ,.Ghosh TK: Pattern of Renal Pathology in Fatal Envenomation by Indian Cobra: J Indian Acad Forensic Med: 32(2): pp:132-133
Abstract Views: 4728
PDF Views: 2