Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Unhealthy Phenotype as Indicated by Salivary Biomarkers: Glucose, Insulin, VEGF-A, and IL-12p70 in Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents


Affiliations
1 Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
2 Department of Nutrition, Dasman Diabetes Institute, 15462 Dasman, Kuwait
3 Genome Center,The Dasman Diabetes Institute, 15462 Dasman, Kuwait
4 Ministry of Health, 13001 Safat, Kuwait
5 Kuwait University, 13060 Safat, Kuwait
6 Dasman Diabetes Institute, 15462 Dasman, Kuwait
7 Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, United States
 

Objective: Here, we investigated the relationships between obesity and the salivary concentrations of insulin, glucose, and 20 metabolic biomarkers in Kuwaiti adolescents. Previously, we have shown that certain salivary metabolic markers can act as surrogates for blood concentrations. Methods: Salivary samples of whole saliva were collected from 8,317 adolescents. Salivary glucose concentration was measured by a high-sensitivity glucose oxidase method implemented on a robotic chemical analyzer. The concentration of salivary insulin and 20 other metabolic biomarkers was assayed in 744 randomly selected saliva samples by multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results: Obesity was seen in 26.5% of the adolescents. Salivary insulin predicting hyperinsulinemia occurred in 4.3% of normal-weight adolescents, 8.3% of overweight adolescents, and 25.7% of obese adolescents (p < 0.0001). Salivary glucose predicting hyperglycemia was found in only 3% of obese children and was not predictive (p = 0.89). Elevated salivary glucose and insulin occurring together was associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor and reduced salivary interleukin-12. Conclusion: Considering the surrogate nature of salivary insulin and glucose, this study suggests that elevated insulin may be a dominant sign of metabolic disease in adolescent populations. It also appears that a proangiogenic environment may accompany elevated glucose in obese adolescents.
User
Notifications
Font Size

Abstract Views: 51

PDF Views: 0




  • Unhealthy Phenotype as Indicated by Salivary Biomarkers: Glucose, Insulin, VEGF-A, and IL-12p70 in Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

Abstract Views: 51  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

Mor-Li Hartman
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
J. Max Goodson
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
Ping Shi
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
Jorel Vargas
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
Tina Yaskell
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
Danielle Stephens
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
Maryann Cugini
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
Hatice Hasturk
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
Roula Barake
Department of Nutrition, Dasman Diabetes Institute, 15462 Dasman, Kuwait
Osama Alsmadi
Genome Center,The Dasman Diabetes Institute, 15462 Dasman, Kuwait
Sabiha Al-Mutawa
Ministry of Health, 13001 Safat, Kuwait
Jitendra Ariga
Ministry of Health, 13001 Safat, Kuwait
Pramod Soparkar
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, United States
Jawad Behbehani
Kuwait University, 13060 Safat, Kuwait
Kazem Behbehani
Dasman Diabetes Institute, 15462 Dasman, Kuwait
Francine Welty
Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, United States

Abstract


Objective: Here, we investigated the relationships between obesity and the salivary concentrations of insulin, glucose, and 20 metabolic biomarkers in Kuwaiti adolescents. Previously, we have shown that certain salivary metabolic markers can act as surrogates for blood concentrations. Methods: Salivary samples of whole saliva were collected from 8,317 adolescents. Salivary glucose concentration was measured by a high-sensitivity glucose oxidase method implemented on a robotic chemical analyzer. The concentration of salivary insulin and 20 other metabolic biomarkers was assayed in 744 randomly selected saliva samples by multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results: Obesity was seen in 26.5% of the adolescents. Salivary insulin predicting hyperinsulinemia occurred in 4.3% of normal-weight adolescents, 8.3% of overweight adolescents, and 25.7% of obese adolescents (p < 0.0001). Salivary glucose predicting hyperglycemia was found in only 3% of obese children and was not predictive (p = 0.89). Elevated salivary glucose and insulin occurring together was associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor and reduced salivary interleukin-12. Conclusion: Considering the surrogate nature of salivary insulin and glucose, this study suggests that elevated insulin may be a dominant sign of metabolic disease in adolescent populations. It also appears that a proangiogenic environment may accompany elevated glucose in obese adolescents.