Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

A Scientific Exploration on Concept of Chronomedicine and Chronotherapy in Ayurveda


Affiliations
1 Department of Kriya Sharir, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India
 

Human physiology and pathophysiology of diseases have been proved to show rhythmic variation in response to temporal factors. This behavior is intertwined in field of clinical physiology in form of chronomedicine and chronotherapy for the better outcomes of treatment. Ayurveda scholars have also described rhythmic variation in biological entities like Dosha, Agni, Bala, presentation of diseases in relation to diurnal, meal intake and seasonal factors. They have well documented different domain of drug i.e. collection of drug, preparation of medicine, intervention of therapeutic procedures and administration of medicine in accordance to variation in biological entities and time. This article is aimed to summarize all these documented observations of Ayurveda regarding chronomedicine and chronotherapy and discuss in view of contemporary sciences, so that it can be utilized by the researchers of this field to generate evidence based data and may be applied by the physician for the better prognosis and management of the disease.

Keywords

Aushadha Kala, Dosha, Panchakarma, Meals, Seasons, Time Factor, Vyadhi.
Font Size

User

Notifications
JOURNAL COVERS
  

  • Lemmer B. Discoveries of rhythms in human bio logical humans: A historical review. Chronobiology International. 2009; 26(6):1019–68. https://doi.org/10.3109/07420520903237984
  • Verma V, Agrawal S, Gehlot S. Ayurveda perspectives on chrono biological concerns in Human Biology. J Res Educ Indian Med. 2018; 24(1):23–31. https://doi.org/10.5455/ JREIM.82-1506402458
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Matrashitiyamadhyaya: Chapter 5, Verse 3-4. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2016. p. 127.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Mahachatushpadamadhyaya: Chapter 10, Verse 14. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2016. p. 236.
  • Maury E, Hong HK, Bass J. Circadian disruption in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Metab. 2014; 40(5):338–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2013.12.005
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Yonivyapadchikitsitam: Chapter 30, Verse 309-311. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 1036–7.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Vimanasthana; Rasavimanamadhyaya: Chapter 1, Verse 12. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 653.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor, 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Vimanasthana; Rasavimanamadhyaya: Chapter 1, Verse 11. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 651.
  • Scheer FA, Shea SA. Human circadian system causes a morning peak in prothrombotic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) independent of the sleep/wake cycle. Blood. 2014; 123:590–3. PMid: 24200683 PMCid: PMC3901072. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-07-517060
  • Kaur G, Phillips CL, Wong K, McLachlan AJ, Saini B. Timing of administration: For commonly-prescribed medicines in Australia. Pharmaceutics. 2016; 8:13. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics8020013
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed). Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Shavyathuchikitsitam: Chapter 12, Verse 12. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 407.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Shavyathuchikitsitam: Chapter 12, Verse 14. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 407.
  • Murthy Shrikanth KR. Editor. Reprint ed. Madhavanidana of Madhavakara, Grahaniroganidanam; Chapter 4, Verse 17. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 22.
  • Murthy Shrikanth KR. Editor.Reprint ed. Madhavanidana of Madhavakara, Shulaparinamashulaannadravashula; Chapter 26, Verse 10. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 98.
  • Murthy Shrikanth KR. Editor. Reprint ed. Madhavanidana of Madhavakara, Shulaparinamashulaannadravashula; Chapter 26, Verse 8. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 98.
  • Murthy Shrikanth KR. Editor. Reprint ed. Madhavanidana of Madhavakara, Shulaparinamashulaannadravashula; Chapter 26, Verse 4. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 97.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Uttartantram; Shirorogavigyaniyamadhyaya: Chapter 25, Verse 5. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 654.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Uttartantram; Shirorogavigyaniyamadhyaya: Chapter 25, Verse 7. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 654.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Uttartantram; Shirorogavigyaniyamadhyaya: Chapter 25, Verse 11-12. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 654.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Grahanichikitsitam: Chapter 15, Verse 63. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 530.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Grahanichikitsitam: Chapter 15, Verse 67. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 531.
  • Murthy Shrikanth KR. Editor. (reprint edition). Madhavanidana of Madhavakara. Shulaparinamashulaannadravashula; Chapter 26, Verse 16. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 99.
  • Murthy Shrikanth KR. Editor. (reprint edition). Madhavanidana of Madhavakara. Shulaparinamashulaannadravashula; Chapter 26, Verse 21. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 100.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Gulmachikitsitam: Chapter 5, Verse 11. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 226.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Gulmachikitsitam: Chapter 5, Verse 13. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 226.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Hikkaashvashachikitsitam: Chapter 17, Verse 41. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 593.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Hikkaashvashachikitsitam: Chapter 17, Verse 31. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 592.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sharirasthana; Katidhapurushiyashariram: Chapter 1, Verse 111. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 989.
  • Verma V, Agrawal S, Gehlot S. Possible measures to assess functional states of tridosha: A critical review. Int J Health Sci Res. 2018; 8(1):219–34.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Tasyashitiyamadhyaya: Chapter 6, Verse 41. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 170.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Tasyashitiyamadhyaya: Chapter 6, Verse 34. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 169.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Tasyashitiyamadhyaya: Chapter 6, Verse 22. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 167.
  • Murthy Shrikanth KR. Editor. Reprint ed. Madhavanidana of Madhavakara. Sheetapittaudardakotha; Chapter 50, Verse 5. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 165.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Hikkasvasachikitsitam: Chapter 17, Verse 62. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 596.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Raktapittachikitsitam: Chapter 4, Verse 22. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 203.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Arshachikitsitam: Chapter 14, Verse 13. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 474.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Arshachikitsitam: Chapter 14, Verse 19. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 476.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Arshachikitsitam: Chapter 14, Verse 15. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 475.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Grahanichikitsitam: Chapter 15, Verse 43. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 425.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Jwarachikitsitam: Chapter 3, Verse 68. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 111.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Mahachatushpadoadhyaya: Chapter 10, Verse 11. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 235.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Mahachatushpadoadhyaya: Chapter 10, Verse 14. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 236.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Jwarachikitsitam: Chapter 3, Verse 48. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 104.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitsasthana; Gulmachikitsitam: Chapter 5, Verse 19. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 228.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Nidanasthana; Vatavyadhinidanam: Chapter 1, Verse 73. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 267.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Nidanasthana; Vridhyupadanshleepadanidanam: Chapter 12, Verse 12. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 317.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Nidanasthana; Granthapachyaarbudagalgandanidanam: Chapter 11, Verse 28. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 314.
  • Ohdo S. Chrono pharmacology focused on Biological Clock. Drug Metab Pharmacokinetic. 2007; 22(1):3–14. https://doi.org/10.2133/dmpk.22.3
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Kalpasthana; Madanakalpama: Chapter 1, Verse 13. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 11.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Kalpasthana; Madanakalpama: Chapter 1, Verse 10. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 9.
  • Shih MC, Chang CM, Kang SM, Tsa ML. Effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera. Int J Mol Sci. 2011; 12(9):6077–88. PMCID: PMC3189769 PMID: 22016645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096077
  • Mali AD, Bathe RS. An updated review on pulsatile drug delivery system. International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutics. 2015; 4(4). https://doi.org/10.7439/ijap.v4i4.2309
  • Hendel J, Hendel L, Aggestrup S. Morning or evening dosage of omeprazole for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease? Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1995; 9:693–7. PMid: 8824658. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.1995.tb00440.x
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 9. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 177.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 10. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 178.
  • Tiwari PV, Tiwari A. Editor. 1st ed. Yogaratnakara of Yogartankara, Maulikasiddhanta; Chapter 1, Verse 882. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Vishvabharti; 2010. p. 111.
  • Tiwari PV, Tiwari A. Editor. 1st ed. Yogaratnakara of Yogartankara, Maulikasiddhanta; Chapter 1, Verse 975. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Vishvabharti; 2010. p. 111.
  • Murthy shrikantha KR. Editor. Reprint ed. Sharangdhara Samhita of Sharangdhra, Madhyamakhanda: Vataka Kalpana; Chapter 7, Verse 94. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;. 2009. p. 109.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sharirasthana; Katidhapurushiyashariram: Chapter 1, Verse 114. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 990.
  • Kamal SM. Effects of single-dose morning and evening administration of pravastatin on antioxidant markers in cholesterolfed rabbits. J Exp Pharmacol. 2011; 3:51–8. PMCID: PMC4863309 PMID: 2718611. https://doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S19449
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Nidanasthana; Vatavyadhinidanam: Chapter 1, Verse 13-20. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 62.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chikitssthana; Yonivyapadachikitsitam: Chapter 30, Verse 298-301. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2013. p. 1032.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 14. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 179.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Uttartantra; Swasthavritamaadhyaya: Chapter 64, Verse 66-67. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 813.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Uttartantra; Swasthavritamaadhyaya: Chapter 64, Verse 68-69. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 813.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 15. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 180.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Uttartantra; Swasthavritamaadhyaya: Chapter 64, Verse 71-72. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 813.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 16. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 180.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 17. Varanasi Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 180.
  • Shashtri AD, Shastri RD. Editors. 20th reprint ed. Bhaishjyaratanavali of Govinddas Sen, Rajyakshamachikitsa; Chapter 14 Verse 122. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashana; 201
  • Shashtri AD, Shastri RD. Editors. 20th reprint ed. Bhaishjyaratanavali of Govinddas Sen, Rajyakshamachikitsa; Chapter 14, Verse 130. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashana; 2010. p. 422.
  • Shashtri AD, Shastri RD. Editors. 20th reprint ed. Bhaishjyaratanavali of Govinddas Sen, Rajyakshamachikitsa; Chapter 14, Verse 203. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashana; 2010. p. 428.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 19. Varanasi Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 180.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Uttartantra; Swasthavritamaadhyaya: Chapter 64, Verse 74-75. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 813.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 18. Varanasi Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 180.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Uttartantra; Swasthavritamaadhyaya: Chapter 64, Verse 76-77. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 814.
  • Shashtri AD, Shastri RD. Editors. 20th reprint ed. Bhaishjyaratanavali of Govinddas Sen, Amlapittachikitsa; Chapter 56, Verse 144. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashana; 2010. p. 917.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 20. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 180.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 21. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 180.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Uttartantra; Swasthavritamaadhyaya: Chapter 64, Verse 79. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 814.
  • Jyotimitra. Editor. 4th ed. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta with Shashilekha commentary of Indu, Sutrasthana; Bheshajaavcharniya: Chapter 23, Verse 22. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2016. p. 180
  • Shashtri AD, Shastri RD. editors. 20th reprint ed. Bhaishjyaratanavali of Govinddas Sen, Agnimandyachikitsa; Chapter 10, Verse 59. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashana; 2010. p. 338.
  • Murthy Shrikantha KR. Editor. Reprint ed. Sharangdhara Samhita of Sharangdhra, Madhyamakhanda: Vataka Kalpana; Chapter 7, Verse 105. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 109.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Yajjahapurishiyamadhyaya: Chapter 25, Verse 40. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 449.
  • Tiwari PV, Tiwari A. Editor. 1st ed. Yogaratnakara of Yogartankara, Maulikasiddanata; Chapter 1, Verse 615- 619. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Vishvabharti; 2010. p. 77.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Naveganadharaniyammadhyaya: Chapter 7, Verse 61. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 449.
  • Tiwari PV, Tiwari A. editor. 1st ed. Yogaratnakara of Yogartankara, Jwaraadhikara Chapter 2, Verse 569-570. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Vishvabharti; 2010. p. 282.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 3rd ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana;Tasyashitiyamad hyaya: Chapter 6, Verse 47-48. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2014. p. 449.
  • Chunekar KC, Pandey GS. Editor. Reprint ed. Bhavaprakashanighantu of Shri Bhavamishra,Haritkyadivarga: Chapter 1, Verse 34. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; 2018. p. 6.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Kalpasthana; Madankalpam: Chapter 1, Verse 14. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 12.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Snehaadhyaya: Chapter 13, Verse 18. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 290.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Siddhisthana; Kalpanasiddhi: Chapter 1, Verse 22. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 118.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Snehaadhyaya: Chapter 13, Verse 20-21. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017.p. 292.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Snehaadhyaya: Chapter 13, Verse 19. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 291.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Sutrasthana; Aturoupkramaniyaadhyaya: Chapter 35, Verse 21. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 153.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Chiktsasthana; Abhayaamalakirasayanapadadhyaya: Chapter 1, Verse 21. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 7.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Sutrasthana; Jalokaavcharniyaadhyaya: Chapter13, Verse 3. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 55. PMCid: PMC2804151.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Matrashitiyamaadhyaya: Chapter 5, Verse 56. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 145.
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Tasyashitiyamadhyaya: Chapter 6, Verse 44. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 170.s
  • Dwivedi LD, Dwivedi BK, Goswami PK. Editor. 1st ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha with Chakrapanidutta and Gangadhara commentary, Sutrasthana; Matrashitiyamaadhyaya: Chapter 5, Verse 33-35. Varanasi: Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2017. p. 141.
  • Sharma PV. Editor. Reprint ed. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary of Dalhan, Chikitsasthanam; Dhumanasyakavalagrahachikitsitam: Chapter 40, Verse 24. Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 555.

Abstract Views: 9

PDF Views: 8




  • A Scientific Exploration on Concept of Chronomedicine and Chronotherapy in Ayurveda

Abstract Views: 9  |  PDF Views: 8

Authors

Sonam Agrawal
Department of Kriya Sharir, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Vandana Verma
Department of Kriya Sharir, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Sangeeta Gehlot
Department of Kriya Sharir, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract


Human physiology and pathophysiology of diseases have been proved to show rhythmic variation in response to temporal factors. This behavior is intertwined in field of clinical physiology in form of chronomedicine and chronotherapy for the better outcomes of treatment. Ayurveda scholars have also described rhythmic variation in biological entities like Dosha, Agni, Bala, presentation of diseases in relation to diurnal, meal intake and seasonal factors. They have well documented different domain of drug i.e. collection of drug, preparation of medicine, intervention of therapeutic procedures and administration of medicine in accordance to variation in biological entities and time. This article is aimed to summarize all these documented observations of Ayurveda regarding chronomedicine and chronotherapy and discuss in view of contemporary sciences, so that it can be utilized by the researchers of this field to generate evidence based data and may be applied by the physician for the better prognosis and management of the disease.

Keywords


Aushadha Kala, Dosha, Panchakarma, Meals, Seasons, Time Factor, Vyadhi.

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18311/jnr%2F2019%2F23305