Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Training and Development in an Era of Downsizing
Downsizing as a restructuring strategy has been actively implemented for the last three decades. While employee reductions were utilized mainly in response to crises prior to the mid-1980s, downsizing developed into a fully-fledged managerial strategy for tens of thousands of companies in the mid- to late-1980s. Since then, downsizing has transformed the international corporate landscape and affected the lives of hundreds of millions of individuals around the world. While the overall effects of downsizing have been widely reported, many misconceptions surrounding the concept of downsizing have remained. This conceptual paper focuses on the role of training and development (T&D) during the downsizing process. In particular, the research depicts the current body of literature associated with the function of HR and its plans, programs, and policies that firms adopting downsizing must provide to their surviving workforces. Finally, the paper offers concluding comments regarding effective downsizing practices that have emerged in the literature.
Downsizing, Survivors, Survivor Syndrome, Training And Development
- Allen, R. K. (1997), Lean and Mean: Workforce 2000 in America, Journal of Workplace Learning, 9(1), from http://www.emeraldlibrary. com/brev/08609ae1.html.
- Amundson, N., Borgen, W., Jordan, S. and Erlebach, A. (2004), Survivors of Downsizing: Helpful and Hindering Experiences, The Career Development Quarterly, 52(3): 256-271.
- Appelbaum, S. H., Delage, C., Labibb, N. and Gault, G. (1997), The Survivor Syndrome: Aftermath of Downsizing, Career Development International, 2(6), from http://www.emerald-library.com/brev/13702fd1.html.
- Appelbaum, S. H., Close, T. G. and Klasa, S. (1999), Downsizing: An Examination of Some Successes and More Failures, Management Decision, 37(5): 424-436.
- Berge, Z., De Verneil, M., Berge, N., Davis, L. and Smith, D. (2002), The Increasing Scope of Training and Development Competency, Benchmarking, 9(1): 43-61.
- Berry, J. K. (1990), Linking Management Development to Business Strategies, Training and Development Journal, 44(8): 20.
- Beylerian, M. and Kleiner, B. H. (2003), The Downsized Workplace, Management Research News, 26(2-4): 97-108.
- Cameron, K. S. (1994), Strategies for Successful Organizational Downsizing, Human Resource Management, 33(2): 189-211.
- Campbell-Jamison, F., Worrall, L. and Cooper, C. (2001), Downsizing in Britain and its Effects on Survivors and Their Organizations, Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 14: 35-58.
- Cascio, W. F. (1993), Downsizing: What Do We Know? What Have We Learned? Academy of Management Executive, 7(1): 95-104.
- Clarke, J. and Koonce, R. (1995), Engaging Organizational Survivors, Training & Development, 49(8): 22-30.
- Clarke, J. and Koonce, R. (1997), Engaging Survivors, Executive Excellence, 14(5): 12-13.
- Commerce Clearing House (CCH) (1985), Training and Development, Commerce Clearing House, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.
- Darling, J. R. and Nurmi, R. (1996), Downsizing the Finnish Company: A Call for Managerial Leadership, Publications of Turku School of Economics, Series B-1, Turku School of Economics, Turku.
- Davidson, J. (1996), Businesses Scrimp on Training, Australian Financial Review, 28.
- Devine, K., Reay, T., Stainton, L. and Collins-Nakai, R. (2003), Downsizing Outcomes: Better a Victim than a Survivor? Human Resources Management, 42(2): 109-121.
- Doherty, N. and Horsted, J. (1995), Helping Survivors to Stay on Board, People Management, January 12.
- Dolan, S., Belout, A. and Balkin, D. B. (2000), Downsizing without Downgrading: Learning How Firms Manage Their Survivors, International Journal of Manpower, 21(1): 34-46.
- Evans, M., Gunz, H. and Jalland, M. (1996), The Aftermath of Downsizing: a Cautionary Tale Above Restructuring and Careers, Business Horizons, May-June: 1-5.
- Farrell, M. and Mavondo, F. (2004), The Effect of Downsizing Strategy and Reorientation Strategy on a Learning Orientation, Personnel Review, 33(4): 383-402.
- Fisher, S. R. and White, M. A. (2000), Downsizing in a Learning Organization: Are There Hidden Costs? Academy of Management Review, 25(1): 244-251.
- Gandolfi, F. (2001), How and Why Should Training and Development be Implemented During the Process of Organizational Downsizing? Unpublished thesis for the award of Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), Southern Cross University, Australia.
- Gandolfi, F. (2006), Corporate Downsizing Demystified: A Scholarly Analysis of a Business Phenomenon, The ICFAI University Press, Hyderabad, India.
- Gandolfi, F. (2007), How do Large Australian and Swiss Banks Implement Downsizing? Journal of Management & Organization, 13(2): 145-159.
- Gomez, P. J., Lorente, J. J. C. and Cabrera, R. V. (2004), Training Practices and Organizational Learning Capability, Journal of European Industrial Training, 28(2-4): 234-256.
- Hareli, S. and Tzafrir, S. (2006), The Role of Causal Attributions in Survivors Emotional Reactions to Downsizing, Human Resource Development Review, 5(4): 400-421.
- Harrington, H. J. (1998), Performance Improvement: The Downside to Quality Improvement (the surplus people problem), The TQM Magazine, 10(3), from http://www.emerald-library.com/brev/10610cb1.html.
- Hitt, M. A., Hoskisson, R. E., Harrison, J. S. and Summers, T. P. (1994), Human Capital and Strategic Competitiveness in the 1990s, Journal of Management Development, 13: 35-64.
- James, D. (1999), Middle Managers or Those with Power Often Went First, Business Review Weekly, March 22.
- Kettley, P. (1995), Employee Morale during Downsizing, Institute of Employment Studies, Report 291.
- Kinnie, N., Hutchinson, S. and Purcell, J. (1998), Downsizing: Is it Always Lean and Mean? Personnel Review, 27(4): 296-311.
- Kramar, R., McGraw, P. and Schuler, R. S. (1997), Human Resource Management in Australia (3rd Ed.), Addison Wesley Longman, Melbourne.
- Lawes, A. (1996), Training for Change, Library Management, 17(3), from http://www.emerald-library.com/brev/01517cd1.html. Lee, C. (1992), After the Cuts, Training, July 1992: 17-23.
- Littler, C. R., Dunford, R., Bramble, T. and Hede, A. (1997), The Dynamics of Downsizing in Australia and New Zealand, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 35(1): 65-79.
- Macky, K. (2004), Organisational Downsizing and Redundancies: The New Zealand Workers Experience, New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 29(1): 63-87.
- Makawatsakul, N. and Kleiner, B. H. (2003), The Effect of Downsizing on Morale and Attrition, Management Research News, 26: 2- 4.
- Maki, N., Moore, S., Grunberg, L. and Greenberg, E. (2005), The Responses of Male and Female Managers to Workplace Stress and Downsizing, North American Journal of Psychology, 7(2): 295-312.
- Marshall, J. (2007), The Gendering of Leadership in Corporate Social Responsibility, Journal of Organizational Change and Management, 20(2): 165-181.
- McMorrow, J. (1999), Future Trends in Human Resources, HR Focus, 76(9): 7-9.
- Mitchell, G. (1998), The Trainers Handbook: The AMA Guide to effective Training (3rd Ed.), AMACOM American Management Association, New York.
- Noer, D. (1993), Healing the Wounds: Overcoming the Trauma of Layoffs and Revitalizing Downsized Organizations, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco,CA.
- Ocholla, D. N. (1995), Professional Development, Manpower Education and Training in Information Science in Kenya, Library Management, 16(8): 11-26.
- Poulter, B. (1982), Training and Development, Commerce Clearing House, Inc., North Ryde, Sydney.
- Rabey, G. (1990), The Training Handbook: A Do It Yourself Guide for Managers, The Business Library, Victoria.
- Sofo, F. (1999), Human Resource Development, Business & Professional Publishing Pty Limited, Woodslane Pty Limited, Sydney.
- Sahdev, K. (2003), Survivors Reactions to Downsizing: The Importance of Contextual Factors, Human Resource Management Journal, 13(4): 56-74.
- Saks, A. M. and Belcourt, M. (2006), An Investigation of Training Activities and Transfer of Training in Organizations, Human Resource Management, 45(4): 629-648.
- Schraeder, M., Self, D. and Lindsay, D. (2006), Performance Appraisals as a Selection Criterion in Downsizing, Managerial Law, 48(5), 479-494.
- Stone, R. J. (2005), Human Resource Management (5th Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.
- Sunoo, B. P. (1998), Downsizing the Arts. Workforce, 77(6): 27-28.
- Weakland, J. (2001), Human Resources Holistic Approach to Healing Downsizing Survivors, Organization Development Journal, 19(2): 59-69.
- Zemke, R. (1990), The Ups and Downs of Downsizing, Training, November: 27-34.
- Zyglidopoulos, S. C. (2003), The Impact of Downsizing on the Corporate Reputation for Social Performance, Journal of Public Affairs, 4(1): 11-25.
Abstract Views: 923
PDF Views: 1