Journal of Robotics
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r
Journal of Robotics is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of robotics.en-USjr@hindawi.com (Dr. Paolo Arena)jr@hindawi.com (Dr. Paolo Arena)Wed, 27 Apr 2016 05:52:35 +0000OJS 2.4.2.0http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss60Theoretical Design and First Test in Laboratory of a Composite Visual Servo-Based Target Spray Robotic System
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97949
In order to spray onto the canopy of interval planting crop, an approach of using a target spray robot with a composite vision servo system based on monocular scene vision and monocular eye-in-hand vision was proposed. Scene camera was used to roughly locate target crop, and then the image-processing methods for background segmentation, crop canopy centroid extraction, and 3D positioning were studied. Eye-in-hand camera was used to precisely determine spray position of each crop. Based on the center and area of 2D minimum-enclosing-circle (MEC) of crop canopy, a method to calculate spray position and spray time was determined. In addition, locating algorithm for the MEC center in nozzle reference frame and the hand-eye calibration matrix were studied. The processing of a mechanical arm guiding nozzle to spray was divided into three stages: reset, alignment, and hovering spray, and servo method of each stage was investigated. For preliminary verification of the theoretical studies on the approach, a simplified experimental prototype containing one spray mechanical arm was built and some performance tests were carried out under controlled environment in laboratory. The results showed that the prototype could achieve the effect of "spraying while moving and accurately spraying on target."Dongjie Zhao, Ying Zhao, Xuelei Wang, Bin Zhanghttp://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97949Decentralized Cooperative Localization Approach for Autonomous Multirobot Systems
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97950
This study proposes the use of a split covariance intersection algorithm (Split-CI) for decentralized multirobot cooperative localization. In the proposed method, each robot maintains a local cubature Kalman filter to estimate its own pose in a predefined coordinate frame.When a robot receives pose information from neighbouring robots, it employs a Split-CI based approach to fuse this received measurement with its local belief. The computational and communicative complexities of the proposed algorithm increase linearly with the number of robots in the multirobot systems (MRS). The proposed method does not require fully connected synchronous communication channels between robots; in fact, it is applicable for MRS with asynchronous and partially connected communication networks. The pose estimation error of the proposed method is bounded. As the proposed method is capable of handling independent and interdependent information of the estimations separately, it does not generate overconfidence state estimations. The performance of the proposed method is compared with several multirobot localization approaches. The simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithmout performs the single-robot localization algorithms and achieves approximately the same estimation accuracy as the centralized cooperative localization approach, but with reduced computational and communicative cost.Thumeera R. Wanasinghe, George K. I. Mann, Raymond G. Gosinehttp://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97950Service Arms with Unconventional Robotic Parameters for Intricate Workstations:Optimal Number and Dimensional Synthesis
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97951
A task-oriented design strategy is presented in this paper for service manipulators. The tasks are normally defined in the form of working locations where the end-effector can work while avoiding the obstacles. To acquire feasible solutions in cluttered environments, the robotic parameters (D-H parameters) are allowed to take unconventional values. This enhances the solution space and it is observed that, by inducing this flexibility, the required number of degrees of freedom for fulfilling a given task can be reduced. A bilevel optimization problem is formulated with the outer layer utilizing the binary search method for minimizing the number of degrees of freedom. To enlarge the applicability domain of the proposed strategy, the upper limit of the number of joints is kept more than six. These allowable redundant joints would help in providing solution for intricate workcells. For each iteration of the upper level, a constrained nonlinear problem is solved for dimensional synthesis of the manipulator. The methodology is demonstrated through a case study of a realistic environment of a cluttered server room. A 7-link service arm, synthesized using the proposed method, is able to fulfill two different tasks effectively.Satwinder Singh, Ekta Singlahttp://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97951Motion Planning of Redundant Manipulators for Painting Uniform Thick Coating in Irregular Duct
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97954
The paper presents a motion planning method of redundant manipulator for painting uniform thick coating on the interior of irregular duct of some aircrafts. Discontinuous peripheral painting method is employed by analyzing the restrictions during painting the duct. For improving the longitudinal uniformity of thick coating, the interlacing painting method plans two sets of sweeping paths and an interlacing distance between the starting paths of the two times of painting. The interlacing distance and overlapping distance are optimized by establishing and analyzing the model of longitudinal uniformity. To enhance the transverse uniformity, sweeping speeds for curved surfaces are calculated by the ratio of transfer efficiency after the basic sweeping speed for the plane is determined.The intertwining method, minimizing the sum of the weighed distances between the duct centerline and key points of the manipulator links, is employed for the joint trajectory planning without collision. The simulation and experiment results show that the redundant manipulators can finish painting the internal surface of the irregular S-shaped duct without collision. The maximum relative deviation is 16.3% and the thicknesses of all measurement points satisfy the acceptance criteria of the factory.Yan Chen, Wenzhuo Chen, Ken Chen, Bo Lihttp://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97954Artificial Knee Joints Actuators with Energy Recovery Capabilities:A Comparison of Performance
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97958
The human knee absorbs more energy than it expends in level ground walking. For this reason it would be useful if the actuation system of a wearable robot for lower limbs was able to recover energy thus improving portability. Presently, we recognize three promising technologies with energy recovery capabilities already available in the literature: the Series Elastic Actuator (SEA), the Clutchable Series Elastic Actuator (C-SEA), and the flywheel Infinitely Variable Transmission (F-IVT) actuator. In this paper, a simulation model based comparison of the performance of these actuators is presented. The focus is on two performance indexes: the energy consumed by the electric motor per gait and the peak torque/power requested to the electric motor. Both quantities are related to the portability of the device: the former affects the size of the batteries for a given desired range; the latter affects the size and the weight of the electric motor.The results show that, besides some well-explained limitations of the presented methodology, the C-SEA is the most energy efficient whereas the F-IVT allows cutting down the motor torque/peak power strongly. The analysis also leads to defining how it is possible to improve the F-IVT to achieve a reduction of the energy consumption.Roberta Alo, Francesco Bottiglione, Giacomo Mantriotahttp://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97958Error Analysis and Adaptive-Robust Control of a 6-DoF Parallel Robot with Ball-Screw Drive Actuators
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97959
Parallel kinematic machines (PKMs) are commonly used for tasks that require high precision and stiffness. In this sense, the rigidity of the drive system of the robot, which is composed of actuators and transmissions, plays a fundamental role. In this paper, ball-screw drive actuators are considered and a 6-degree of freedom(DoF) parallel robot with prismatic actuated joints is used as application case. A mathematical model of the ball-screw drive is proposed considering the most influencing sources of nonlinearity: sliding-dependent flexibility, backlash, and friction. Using this model, the most critical poses of the robot with respect to the kinematic mapping of the error from the joint- to the task-space are systematically investigated to obtain the work space positional and rotational resolution, apart from control issues. Finally, a nonlinear adaptive-robust control algorithm for trajectory tracking, based on the minimization of the tracking error, is described and simulated.Navid Negahbani, Hermes Giberti, Enrico Fiorehttp://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97959Gas Concentration Prediction Based on the Measured Data of a Coal Mine Rescue Robot
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97961
The coal mine environment is complex and dangerous after gas accident; then a timely and effective rescue and relief work is necessary. Hence prediction of gas concentration in front of coal mine rescue robot is an important significance to ensure that the coal mine rescue robot carries out the exploration and search and rescuemission. In this paper, a gray neural network is proposed to predict the gas concentration 10meters in front of the coal mine rescue robot based on the gas concentration, temperature, and wind speed of the current position and 1 meter in front. Subsequently the quantum genetic algorithm optimization gray neural network parameters of the gas concentration prediction method are proposed to get more accurate prediction of the gas concentration in the roadway. Experimental results show that a gray neural network optimized by the quantum genetic algorithm is more accurate for predicting the gas concentration. The overall prediction error is 9.12%, and the largest forecasting error is 11.36%; compared with gray neural network, the gas concentration prediction error increases by 55.23%. This means that the proposed method can better allow the coal mine rescue robot to accurately predict the gas concentration in the coal mine roadway.Xiliang Ma, Hua Zhuhttp://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97961A Novel Method of Dexterity Analysis for a 5-DOF Manipulator
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97965
The dexterity characteristics and dexterous workspace features are applied as the considerable and key kinematics properties to evaluate the manipulator performance. In this paper, a novel method of the dexterity analysis with the character of graphic dexterity and a new concept of the spatial mapping envelope surface are proposed for a 5-degree of freedom (DOF)manipulator.Additionally, for an arbitrary selected point and a dexterous workspace, the dexterity characteristics and the dexterity conditions are drawn, respectively. Finally, the dexterous workspace of this 5-DOF manipulator is obtained and it can be utilized as the basis research of this manipulator in future such as the structure optimization and motion control.Wanjin Guo, Ruifeng Li, Chuqing Cao, Yunfeng Gaohttp://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97965Optimal Trajectory Planning for Glass-Handing Robot Based on Execution Time Acceleration and Jerk
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97968
This study describes a trajectory planning method based on execution time, acceleration, and jerk to ensure that a glass-handing robot runs smoothly at execution time. The minimised objective function consists of the weighted sum of the square of the integral of the execution time, the integral of the acceleration, and the integral of the jerk, all of which are obtained through the weighted coefficient method. A three-dimensional kinematics model of the glass-handing robot is then established and nonuniform fifth-order B-splines are used to interpolate its path points. The acceleration and jerk are expressed as functions of time through mathematical simulation. Simulation results show that the designed method for robot trajectory planning not only improves the working efficiency of the glass-handing robot but also ensures that it runs smoothly.Honggang Duan, Rongmin Zhang, Fei Yu, Jun Gao, Yuan Chenhttp://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/j-r/article/view/97968