Open Access Subscription Access
Determination of Firing Temperature of Some Ancient Potteries of Tamil Nadu, India by FT-IR Spectroscopic Technique
Archaeological artifacts such as potteries, bricks and tiles are the source of information about the ancient civilization, their technological skills and cultural trade etc. Pottery is one of the oldest human technology and art-form that remains as a major industry even today. The potteries are made of clay minerals and kaolinte is the common mineral in pottery making. The firing temperature of ancient potteries is based primarily on changes of physical characteristics occurring when clay minerals are heated. The study of thermal transformations of the clay minerals can thus help in determining the firing temperatures of the potteries. In the present work, the estimation of firing temperature of the recently collected potteries from Melchittamur of Tamil Nadu is determined by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The mineral composition and firing condition are inferred from the FT-IR spectrum. To estimate the upper limit of firing temperature of pottery fragments, the specimens were refried at different temperatures and the FT-IR spectrum was recorded from the samples. The interpretation of results is made from the IR characteristics absorption bands. Results are discussed and the conclusion is drawn.
Ancient Pottery, Clay, FT-IR, Firing Temperature
- Clarence Karr. Jr (1974) Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of Lunar and terrestrial minerals. Academic Press, NY, pp: 325-358.
- De Benedetto, Fabbri B, Sabbatini L and Zambonin PG (2002) Infrared spectroscopy in the mineralogical characterization of ancient pottery. J. Cult. Heritage. 3, 177–186.
- Eissa NA, Sallam HA, Sanad AM and Mira AF (1979) Application of Mossbauer spectroscopy in investigating Egyptian archaeology. Ind. J. Pure. Appl. Phys. 17, 731- 737.
- Elass F and Oliver D (1978) Infrared and electron spin resonance studies of clays representative of the sedimentary evolution of the basin of Autun. Clay Minerals. 13, 299–308.
- Farmer VC (1974) The IR spectra of minerals, mineralogical society, London, 42, 308-320.
- Ghosh SN (1978) Infrared spectra of some selected minerals, rocks and products. J. Mat. Sci. 13, 1877-1886.
- Kanchan DK, Mendiratta RG and Puri RK (1986) an Infrared study of the 20Na -V2O5-Fe2O3 Glass system. J. Mat. Sci. 21, 2418-2422.
- Longworth G and Tite MS (1977) Mossbauer and magnetic susceptibility studies of Iron oxides in soils from archaeological sites. Archaeometry. 19, 3-14.
- Lyon RJP (1967) Infrared absorption spectroscopy, physical methods in determinative mineralogy. Zussman J (Ed.), Academic Press, NY, pp: 371-403.
- Makundi IN, Waern Sperber A and Ericson T (1989) Studies of archaeological problems by Mossbauer spectroscopy. Archaeology. 31, 54-65.
- Maniatis Y, Katsanos ME and Caskey K (1982) Analysis of Copper alloys by proton beams. Archaeometry. 24, 191-198.
- Maniatis Y, Simopoulous A and Kosgikas (1981) Mossbauer study of the effect of calcium content on Iron oxide transformations in fired clays. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 263.
- Maniatis Y, Simopoulous A, Kosgikas R and Perdikastsis V (1983) Effect of a reducing atmosphere on minerals and iron oxides developed in fired clays: the role of Calcium. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66, 773.
- Mendeluvici E, Yariv SH and Villaba R (1979) Febearing kaolinite in Venezuelan Laterites: Infrared spectroscopy and chemical dissolution evidence. Clay minerals. 14, 323-331.
- Miller JG (1961) An Infrared spectroscopic study of the isothermal dehydroxylation of kaolinite at 470 0C. J. Phys. Chem. 63, 800-804.
- Palnivel R and Velraj G (2003) Porosity measurements to estimate the firing temperature of ancient potteries. J. Curr. Sci. 3(1), 63-66.
- Prost R, Dameme E, Driard J and Leydecadsker JP (1989) Clays and clay minerals. 37, 464– 468.
- Ramasamy K and Kamalakannan M (1987) Infrared study of some south Indian clays. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 25, 284-286.
- Ramasamy K and Venkatachalapathay R (1992) FT-IR and Mossbauer spectroscopy applied to study of archaeological artifacts from Maligaimedu, Tamil Nadu, India. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 30, 284-286.
- Ravisankar R (2009) Application of spectroscopic technique for the identification of minerals from Beach rocks of Tamil Nadu, India. EARFAM. 19, 272-276.
- Ravisankar R, Senthilkumar G, Kiruba S, Chandrasekaran A and Jebakumar PP (2010) Mineral analysis of coastal sediment samples of Tuna, Gujarat, India. Ind. J. Sci. Tech. 3(7), 775-781.
- Ross CS and Kerr PE (1931) The Kaolin minerals. US Geol. Survey Profess. Paper 165 E ,151- 176.
- Russell JD (1987) Infrared methods, A hand book of determinative methods in clay mineralogy, Wilson MJ (Ed.) Blackie & Son Ltd. NY, pp:11-67.
- Tite MS (1969) Determination of firing temperature of ancient ceramics by measurement of thermal expansion; a measurement. Aracheometry.11,134-136.
- Tominaga T, Takeda M and Mabuchi S (1978) Characterization of ancient Japanese roofing tiles by 57 Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy. Archaeometry. 20, 135-146.
- Tuddenham WM and Lyon RJP (1960) Infrared techniques in the identification and measurements of minerals. Anal. Chem. 32, 1630-1634.
- Velraj G, Janaki K, Mohamed Musthafa A and Palanivel R (2009) Estimation of firing temperatue of some archaeological pottery shreds from India. Spectrochimica. Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol. Spec. 72, 703-707.
- Velraj G, Janaki K, Mohamed Musthafa A and Palanivel R (2009) Spectroscopic and Porosimetry studies to estimate the firing temperatue of some archaeological pottery shreds from India. Appl. Clay Sci. 43, 303-307.
- White JL (1971) Interpretation of infrared spectra of soil minerals. Soil Sci. 112, 22-67.
- Wolf RG (1965) Infrared absorption patterns (OH region) of several clay minerals. Am. Mineral. 50, 244.
- Wolf RG (1969) Structural aspects of kaolinte using infrared absorption. Am. Mineral. 48, 300-309.
- Xu Z, Cornilsen BC, Popko DC, Penning WD, Wood JR and Hwang JY (2001) Quantitative mineral analysis by FT-IR spectroscopy. Int. J. Vib. Spec. 5, 4-6.
Abstract Views: 283
PDF Views: 165