Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Quantitative Risk Assessment of Groundwater pH during Seismic Exploration in Sagbama, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Quantitative Risk Assessment of Groundwater pH during Seismic Exploration in Sagbama, Niger Delta, Nigeria were investigated with dynamite energy source. A total amount of 116,349.2 kg dynamite was detonated in 60, 398 source point in an area of 771.26 square kilometers of Sagbama area. The energy source was the high explosive dynamite (trinitrotoluene) and 6m Electric Detonators loaded in 5 hole pattern source array. Eleven boreholes was used to study the impact of the dynamite shots in Sagbama. The American Water Works Association method was used in the analysis of pH. A control sample was taken from the borehole stations by sampling a day before detonation of dynamite. Subsequently, sampling was carried out a day after dynamite detonation and then, on a forth-nightly basis. The pH range was 7.47 – 7.70. These Variations of the pH of the water sample test values in comparison with the values of the control samples were not significant enough to be said that there was any groundwater contamination. The shattering property (brisance) of the dynamite resulted in the crushing of some amount of the sediment particles. Computation of the grain size distribution curve parameters yielded a permeability value of 3.24 cm/sec. The representative lithology of Sagbama area as revealed by the borehole logging showed that they are mainly non-plastics also categorized as cohensionless sands. The presence of silty sands at 4 to 5m depths could be an obstruction to infiltration of contaminants from dynamite detonation. However, the pH of the groundwater did not exceed the tolerance or compliance limit specified by the Federal Ministry of Environment, Housing and Urban Development.
Sagbama, pH, Dynamite, Seismic, Lithology.
- Santis LC and Cortese RA. The large chamber test for toxic fumes analysis of permissible explosives, Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Explosive and Blasting Techniques, 1995;1: 5 – 9.
- Mason CM and Aiken EG. Methods for evaluating explosives and hazardous materials, Bureau of Mines Information Circular IC 8541, 1972; 29 – 30.
- Robert BH, Blasters’ Handbook, 11th Edition, International Society of Explosives Engineering, 1998; pp. 272 – 273.
- Berberick DW, Yost RA and Fetterolf DD. Analysis of explosives by liquid chromatography/thermospray/mass spectrometry. Journal of Forensic Science, 1998; 1434.
- Baulch DL, Drysdale DD and Horne DG. Evaluated Kinetic Data for high temperature reactions, Homogeneous gas phase reactions of the H2-N2-system, Butterworth, London, 1973, pp. 438.
- Monteil-Rivera F, Beaulieu C, Deschamps S, Paguet L and Jalal H. Determination of explosives in environmental water samples by solid-phase micro extraction-liquid chromatography, Journal of Chromatography A, 2004; 1048: 213-221.
- Siegel F. The impact area groundwater study at Massachusette Military Reservation (MMR),” Special Studies Report, 1999; pp. 700 – 710.
- Method of sampling and Test (Physical and Chemical) for water and wastewater, IS 3025(Part 11): pH value(First revision), Bureau of Indian Standards, 1983
- http://www. nairaland.com
- American Water Works Association, “Simplified Procedures for Water Examination,” Manual Mi2, AWWA, New York. 1964.
- Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater; APHA, AWWA, and WEF, 21 Edition, 2005.
- Abam TKS. Geohyrology with Applications to environmental Management, Charisma Graphics, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria, 2004; pp. 147.
- Youdeowei PO. Evaluation of environmental pollution susceptibility in Niger Delta using Geotechnical parameters,” Ph.D Thesis, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Portharcourt, Nigeria, 2003; pp. 198.
Abstract Views: 120
PDF Views: 9