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Emotional Labour: A Process of Self-deception on the well being of Service Workers


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1 Dept. of Psychology, University of Calicut, India
     

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The characteristics, beliefs and atti tude of employees have changed dramati cally over the past several decades, l argely in responds to the social trends, rapi d advances in technology and organi sational restructuring. During service interactions, service employees express socially and naturally desired emotions as part of their job roles, which is an effective form of emotional labour. Emotional Labour is the: ` management of feelings to create a publically observable facial and bodily display' requiring one `to induce or suppress feeling in order to sustain the outward countenance that produces the proper state of mind in others' (Hochschild, 1983). Emotional labour has gained prominence and is becoming an active process that affects the behaviour of employees. Based on literature, this paper addresses on propositions which explores the influence of emotional display during service interaction on the well-being of employees and also elaborates the importance of display of positive and negative emotions by service employees.

Keywords

Display Rules, Emotional Labour, Emotional Regul Ation, Self- Deception, Service Employees, Well-being
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  • Diefendorff, J.M., and Richard E.M. (2003). Antecedents and Consequences of Emotional Di splay Rule Perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 284-294.
  • Fineman, S., Cl egg S.R., Hardy C., and Nord W.R. (1996). Handbook of Organisational Studies. Sage, London.
  • Gable, S.L., Rei s H.T., Elliot A.J. (2000). Behavioural Activation and Inhibition in Everyday Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 1135-1149.
  • Gray, J.A. (1987). The Neuropsychology of Emotions and Personality. Cognitive Neurochemistry, p. 171-190.
  • Grandey, A.A. (2000). Emotional Regulation in the Workpl ace: A New way to Conceptualise Emotional Labour. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 95-110.
  • Grandey, A.A., and Brauburger A.L. (2002). The Emotion Regulation behind the Customer Service Smile. In R. Lord, R. Klimoski, and R. Kanfer (Eds.). Emotions in the Workplace, San Francisco: Jossy-Bass, p. 260-294.
  • Gross, J.J. (1998). The Emerging Field of Emotion Regulation: An Integrative Review. Journal of General Psychology, 2, 271-299.
  • Gross, J.J. (2002). Emotion Regulation: Affective, Cognitive and Social Consequences. Psychology, 39, 281-291. Gross, J.J., and Levenson R.W. (1997). Hiding Feelings: The Active Effects of Inhibiting Negative and Positive Emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 95-103.
  • Hochschild, A.R. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • James L.R. (1980). The Unmeasured Variables Problem in Path Analyses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 415-421.
  • Johnson, H.M., and Spector P.E. (2007). Service wi th a Smile: Do Emotional Intelligence, Gender and Autonomy Moderate the Emotional Labour Process? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 319-333.
  • Joormann, J., Siemer M., and Gotlib I.H. (2007). Mood Regul ation in Depression: Differential Effects of Distraction and Recall of Happy Memories on Sad Mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 484-490.
  • John, D.P., and Gross J.J. (2004). Heal thy and Unhealthy Emotion Regulation: Personality Processes, Individual Differences, and Life Span Development. Journal of Personality, 72, 1301- 1333.
  • Judge, T.A., and Larson R.J. (2001). Dispositional Affect and Job Satisfaction: A Review and Theoretical Extension. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 86, 67-98.
  • Judge, T.A., Woolf E.F., and Hurst C. (2009). Is Emotional Labour more Difficul t for some than for other? A Multilevel, Experience – Sampling Study. Personal Psychology, 62, 57-88.
  • Larson, R.J. (2000). Toward the Science of Mood Regul ation. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 129-141.
  • Levi , L. (1987). Filling Work to Human Capacities and Need Improvements in the Contents and Organisation of Work. In Kaline et al ., Psychological Factors at Work.
  • Mann, S. (1999). Emotion at Work: To What Extent are we Expressing, Suppressing or Faking it? European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, 8, 347-369.
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  • Emotional Labour: A Process of Self-deception on the well being of Service Workers

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Authors

V. Susan
Dept. of Psychology, University of Calicut, India
C. Jayan
Dept. of Psychology, University of Calicut, India

Abstract


The characteristics, beliefs and atti tude of employees have changed dramati cally over the past several decades, l argely in responds to the social trends, rapi d advances in technology and organi sational restructuring. During service interactions, service employees express socially and naturally desired emotions as part of their job roles, which is an effective form of emotional labour. Emotional Labour is the: ` management of feelings to create a publically observable facial and bodily display' requiring one `to induce or suppress feeling in order to sustain the outward countenance that produces the proper state of mind in others' (Hochschild, 1983). Emotional labour has gained prominence and is becoming an active process that affects the behaviour of employees. Based on literature, this paper addresses on propositions which explores the influence of emotional display during service interaction on the well-being of employees and also elaborates the importance of display of positive and negative emotions by service employees.

Keywords


Display Rules, Emotional Labour, Emotional Regul Ation, Self- Deception, Service Employees, Well-being

References