Effect of High Frequency, Low Magnitude Vibration on Bone Density and Lean Content in Children with Down Syndrome
Design: Experimental study (randomized control trial) Subjects: Thirty children with DS from both sexes, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years. They were divided randomly into two groups of equal number A (control) and B (study)
Procedure: Evaluation before and after three months of treatment for each child of the two groups was conducted via using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Group A received a selected exercise program, while group B received the same exercise program given to group A in addition to proprioceptive stimulation in the form of whole body vibration (WBV) training.
Results: Significant improvement was observed in the two groups when comparing their pre and post-treatment mean values. The mean ± SD of BMD post treatment for control group was 0.75 ± 0.03 and that for study group was 0.79 ± 0.03. The mean difference between both groups was -0.04. There was a significant difference between control and study groups in BMD post treatment.
Conclusion: mechanical vibration seems to improve BMD and muscular content in DS children making the treatment of osteoporosis possible.
- Hansen MA, Overgaard K, Riis BJ, et al. Role of peak bone mass and bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 12 year study. Bmj 1991;303:961–4. [PubMed: 1954420]
- Gilsanz V, Gibbens DT, Carlson M, et al. Peak trabecular vertebral density: a comparison of adolescent and adult females. Calcif Tissue Int 1988;43:260–2. [PubMed: 3145132]
- Binkley T, Johnson J, Vogel L, et al. Bone measurements by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in children with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr 2005;147:791–6. [PubMed: 16356433]
- Houlihan CM, Stevenson RD. Bone density in cerebral palsy. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2009;20:493–508. [PubMed: 19643349]
- Newberger D. Down syndrome: prenatal risk assessment and diagnosis. Am Fam Physician. 2000;62:825–832.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Improved national prevalence estimates for 18 selected major birth defects: United States, 1999–2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;54:1301–1305.
- Chapman RS, Hesketh LJ. Behavioral phenotype of individuals with Down syndrome. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2000;6:84 –95.
- Kubo M, Ulrich B. Coordination of pelvis-HAT (head, arms and trunk) in anteriorposterior and medio-lateral directions during treadmill gait in preadolescents with/ without Down syndrome. Gait Posture. 2006;23:512–518.
- Ulrich DA, Ulrich BD, Angulo-Kinzler RM, Yun J. Treadmill training of infants with Down syndrome: evidence-based developmental outcomes. Pediatrics. 2001;108: 84–91.
- Hawli Y, Nasrallah M, El-Hajj Fuleihan G (2009) Endocrine and musculoskeletal abnormalities in patients with Down syndrome. Nat Rev Endocrinol 5: 327–334.
- Rubin C, Recker R, Cullen D, et al. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss by a low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical stimuli: a clinical trial assessing compliance, efficacy, and safety. J Bone Miner Res 2004;19:343–51. [PubMed: 15040821]
- Bosco C, Colli R, Introini E, et al. Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure. Clin Physiol 1999;19:183–7. [PubMed: 10200901]
- Rubin C, Xu G, Judex S. The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli. Faseb J 2001;15:2225–9. [PubMed: 11641249]
- Rubin CT, Sommerfeldt DW, Judex S, et al. Inhibition of osteopenia by low magnitude, highfrequency mechanical stimuli. Drug Discov Today 2001;6:848–858. [PubMed: 11495758]
- Gilsanz V, Wren TA, Sanchez M, et al. Low-level, high-frequency mechanical signals enhance musculoskeletal development of young women with low BMD. J Bone Miner Res 2006;21:1464– 74. [PubMed: 16939405]
- Ward K, Alsop C, Caulton J, et al. Low magnitude mechanical loading is osteogenic in children with disabling conditions. J Bone Miner Res 2004;19:360–9. [PubMed: 15040823]
- Gilsanz V, Gibbens DT, Roe TF, et al. Vertebral bone density in children: effect of puberty. Radiology 1988;166:847–50. [PubMed: 3340782]
- Bittles AH, Glasson EJ (2004) Clinical, social, and ethical implications of changing life expectancy in Down syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol 46: 282–286.
- Gonzalez-Aguero A, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Moreno LA, Casajus JA (2011) Bone mass in male and female children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Osteoporos Int 22: 2151–2157.
- Angelopoulou N, Souftas V, Sakadamis A, Mandroukas K (1999) Bone mineral density in adults with Down’s syndrome. Eur Radiol 9: 648–651.
- Baptista F, Varela A, Sardinha LB (2005) Bone mineral mass in males and females with and without Down syndrome. Osteoporos Int 16: 380–388.
- Olson LE, Mohan S (2011) Bone density phenotypes in mice aneuploid for the Down syndrome critical region. Am J Med Genet A 155: 2436–2445.
- Hui SL, Slemenda CW, Johnston CC Jr (1990) The contribution of bone loss to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1: 30–34.
- Seeman E (1994) Reduced bone density in women with fractures: contribution of low peak bone density and rapid bone loss. Osteoporos Int 4 Suppl 1: 15–25.
- Kao CH, Chen CC, Wang SJ, Yeh SH (1992) Bone mineral density in children with Down’s syndrome detected by dual photon absorptiometry. Nucl Med Commun 13: 773–775.
- Angelopoulou N, Matziari C, Tsimaras V, Sakadamis A, Souftas V, et al. (2000) Bone mineral density and muscle strength in young men with mental retardation (with and without Down syndrome). Calcif Tissue Int 66: 176–180.
- Sepulveda D, Allison DB, Gomez JE, Kreibich K, Brown RA, et al. (1995) Low spinal and pelvic bone mineral density among individuals with Down syndrome. Am J Ment Retard 100: 109–114.
- McKelvey KD, Fowler TW, Akel NS, Kelsay JA, Gaddy D, et al. (2012) Low bone turnover and low bone density in a cohort of adults with Down syndrome Osteoporos Int In Press.
- Houlihan MH and Stevenson RD (2009) Bone Density in Cerebral Palsy Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 20(3): 493–508.
- Issurin VB, Tenenbaum G. Acute and residual effect of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes. J Sports Sci 1999; 17: 177-182.
- Torvinen S, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Järvinen TA, Pasanen M, Kontulainen S. Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34: 1523-1528.
- Issurin VB, Liebermann DG, Tenenbaum G. Effect of vibratory stimulation training on maximal force and flexibility. J Sport Sci 1994; 12: 561-566.
- Klyscz T, Ritter-Schempp C, Jünger M, Rassner G. Biomechanical stimulation therapy as physical treatment to farthrogenic venous insufficiency. Hautarzt 1997; 48: 318-322.
- Gusi N, Raimundo A, Leal A. Low-frequency vibratory exercise reduces the risk of bone fracture more than walking: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2006; 7: 92.
- Nakamura H, Moroji T, Nagase H, Okazawa T , Okada A. Changes of cerebral vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and somatostatin-like immunoreactivity induced by noise and wholebody vibration in the rat. Eur J Applpysiol 1994; 68: 62-67.
- Bannister SR, Lohmann CH, Liu Y, Sylvia VL, Cochran DL, Dean DD. Shear force modulates osteoblast response to surface roughness. J Biomed Mater Res 2002; 60: 167-174.
- Liu J, Sekiya I, Asai K, Tada T, Kato T, Matsui N. Biosynthetic response of cultured articular chondrocytes to mechanical vibration. Res Exp Med (Berl) 2001; 200: 183-193.
- McAllister TN, Frangos JA. Steady and transient fluid shear stress stimulates NO release in osteoblasts through distinct biochemical pathways. J Bone Miner Res 1999; 14: 930-936.
- Logvinov SV, Levitski- EF, Poliakova SA, Strelis LP, Laptev BI. The morphofunctional vadidation of the use of vibration-traction for the correction of contractures of the joints. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 1998; 6: 43-45.
- V. B. Issurin, “Vibrations and their applications in sport: a review,” Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 324–336, 2005.
- J. Rittweger, “Vibration as an exercise modality: how it may work, and what its potential might be,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 877–904, 2010.
- V. B. Issurin, D. G. Liebermann, and G. Tenenbaum, “Effect of vibratory stimulation training on maximal force and flexibility,” Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 561–566,1994
- N. N.Mahieu, E.Witvrouw, D. Van De Voorde, D.Michilsens, V. Arbyn, and W. Van Den Broecke, “Improving strength and postural control in young skiers: whole-body vibration versus equivalent resistance training,” Journal of Athletic Training, vol.41, no. 3, pp. 286–293, 2006.
Abstract Views: 156
PDF Views: 0