Comparative Study between the effects of Static Somatosensory Balance Training and Static Vestibular Balance Training on Dynamic Balance and Fear of Fall in Institutionalized Elderly
Subjects: Forty subjects aged 60 to 80 years.
Method: Subjects were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and were divided into two groups. Group 1 underwent static vestibular balance training and group 2 underwent static somatosensory balance training. The subject's dynamic balance was measured with the help of functional reach test (FRT) and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and fear of fall was measured by Activities Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC). Measurements were taken at baseline, immediately after four weeks of intervention and after four weeks of follow up from intervention. Frequency of falling was also determined by noting the number of falls that occurred during the follow up period. Independent t-test was used to compare the difference between the group as well as one-way Anova and Post hoc bonferroni were used to compare the outcomes within the two groups.
Results: The results documented that static balance training has carry over effects on dynamic balance; this was justified by significant difference in the scores of functional reach test when between groups comparison was done. Also there was significant improvement in fear of fall in elderly subjects, as evidenced by statistically significant difference in the scores of activities specific balance confidence. The p-value of ABC was 0.01 in group 1 and group 2 when between groups comparison was done.
Conclusion: Static balance training has carry over effect on dynamic balance this was documented by statistically significant scores of FRT and ABC. The significant results between the two groups hypothesize that static balance training could be an effective part of rehabilitation settings. Despite the many age-related changes occurring in the multiple systems that contribute to good balance and mobility, growing evidence suggests that we can reverse, or at least slow, the rate of decline occurring in some or all of these systems.1
- Debra J Rose. Fall Proof! A comprehensive balance and mobility training programme. 2nd edition. Sherridon books; 2003.
- Dr. B. Krishna swami, Dr. Gnanasambandam. Falls in Oder People. Kerala Aging Survey. Available from https://docs.google.com/viewer.
- John Unsworth, Anthony Mode. Preventing falls in older people: Risk factors and primary prevention through physical activity. British Journal of Community Nursing. 2003, 8 (5): 214-220.
- Todd, Skelton D. What are the main risk factors amongst older people and what are the most effective interventions to prevent these falls? World Health Organization; Europe. 2004 March; 6-10.
- Shah Ebrahim, Paul W. Thompson. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of brisk walking in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age and Ageing. 1997 Apr; 26: 253- 260.
- Mary E. Tinetti, Carlos F. Mendes de Leon. Fear of Falling and Fall-Related Efficacy in Relationship to Functioning Among Community- Living Elders. Journal of Gerontology. 1994 Apr; 49. (3): 140-147.
- Sanna Sihvonen. Postural balance and aging. Studies in Sports Physical Education and Health. 2004 September 29; 11-18.
- Laura Wegener, Carolyn Kisner. Static and Dynamic Balance Responses in Persons with Bilateral Knee Osteoarthritis. Journal of Orthopedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 1997 January; 25 ( 1 ) : 13-18.
- Pamela W. Duncan, Debra K. Weiner. Functional Reach: A New Clinical Measure of Balance. Journal of Gerontology; Medical Sciences. 1990 Apr; 45 (6): 192-197.
- Kristine Legters. Fear of Falling. Phys Ther. 2002 March; 82: 264-272.
- Simon Gates, Lesley A. Smith. Systematic review of accuracy of screening instruments for predicting fall risk among independently living older adults. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 2008 45 (8): 1105-1116.
- R. C. King, L. Atallah. Elderly Risk Assessment of Falls. Research Gate. 2010 June: 30-35.
- A. John Campbell, M. Clare Robertson. Implementation of multifactorial interventions for fall and fracture prevention. Age and Ageing 2006 March; 35-52: ii60-ii64.
- Faezeh Zamanian. Effects of Balance Training Program On falling Risk and Static Balance of Elderly Women. International Journal of Sport Studies. 2011. 1 (4): 180-185.
- William D. Bandy, Barbara Sanders. Therapeutic Exercise for Physical Therapist Assistants. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
- Laurence Z. Rubenstein, Karen R. Josephson. Effects of a Group Exercise Program on Strength, Mobility, And Falls Among Fall – Prone Elderly Men. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 2000 55 (6): 317-321.
- Nathan, D. Zesler I. Katz, and Ross D Zafonte: Brain injury medicine: principles and practice. Demos Medical Publishing. 3rd Ed. 1992; 6 (5): 411-418.
- Dawn A. Skelton. Effects of physical activity on postural stability. Age and Ageing. 2001; 30-S4: 33-39.
- Melzer I, Benjuya N; Effect of physical training on postural control of elderly. Harefuah 2005, 114: 839-844.
- Rogers ME, Fernandez JE; Training to reduce postural sway and increase functional reach in the elderly. J Occup Rehabil 2001, 11:291-298.
- Crystal O. Kean, David G. Behm; Fixed foot balance training increases rectus femoris activation during landing and jump height in recreationally active women. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2006 March; 5, 138-148.
- Anne Barnett, Ben Smith; Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: A randomized controlled trial. Age and Ageing 2003; 32: 407-414.
Abstract Views: 151
PDF Views: 0