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Effectiveness of Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization in Management of Athletes with Gleno-Humeral Internal Rotation Deficit
BACKGROUND: Athletes involved in overhead sports show limited ROM for internal rotation and increased external rotation. This condition of Gleno-humeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) increases risk of shoulder injuries in athletes and need active management. Current interventions include static stretching, muscle energy techniques and warm-up exercises. Instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) has been hypothesized to lengthen the tissue and improve range by breaking adhesions in soft tissues, there is lack of research showing its effects in athletes with GIRD. This study explores the effectiveness of IASTM in athletes with GIRD following a three week protocol. METHODOLOGY: Thirty athletes with GIRD were enrolled in the study by purposive sampling. They received intervention of IASTM with M2T Blade for posterior shoulder musculature and capsule, on alternate days for three weeks. Pre and post-intervention measurements for gleno-humeral ROM for internal rotation, external rotation and horizontal adduction using goniometry; and Apley’s scratch test were noted. RESULTS: Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test. IASTM significantly improved ROM for internal rotation from 40.1±5.76 to 74.17±8.28 (p<0.001). There was significant improvement in horizontal adduction ROM from 90.47±10.12 to 105.5±8.02 (p<0.001). No significant difference was found for external rotation. Statistically significant changes were found on Apley’s scratch test as well (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Three weeks intervention of IASTM using M2T Blade is effective in improving ranges and flexibility of athletes with GIRD.
Gleno-humeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD), Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM), Apley’s Test.
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