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Leptospirosis Associated with Environmental Risk Factors: A Systematic Review


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1 Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
     

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This article aimed to summarize environmental risk factors that can cause leptospirosis in human. Leptospirosis is one of the zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of animals that cause diseases when transmitted to humans. The bacteria that cause leptospirosis are Leptospira. Leptospira is pathogenic bacteria that are transmitted from animals to humans, directly or indirectly. Leptospirosis mainly found in the human who comes into contact with the urine of infected animals, urine-contaminated surface water, and soil in the environment or drinking water and food that contaminated with Leptospira. This review retrieved articles from four science databases, namely ProQuest, Scopus, Pubmed, and ScienceDirect. A systematic review was conducted using a predefined protocol based on PRISMA. The searching process utilizes three main keywords that include leptospirosis, risk factors, and humans in various combinations. During the initial search from four science databases (ProQuest, Scopus, Pubmed, and ScienceDirect), there were 506 articles retrieved. During the screening process, 59 articles excluded due to duplication, 403 articles excluded based on title and abstract incompatibility with inclusion criteria, 14 articles excluded due to not match of article content with inclusion criteria, and seven articles excluded because of the ineligibility with the study In the final screening process 23 articles were chosen to be analyzed. This review found the environmental risk factors that cause leptospirosis in humans are flooding, sanitation, household environment, and the presence of animal reservoir. Prevention is needed by improving the environment and dealing with flood problems properly

Keywords

Infectious Disease, Leptospirosis, Risk Factors, Environment, Human.
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  • Leptospirosis Associated with Environmental Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

Abstract Views: 94  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

Rusyda Ihwani Tantia Nova
Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
Dewi Susanna
Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

Abstract


This article aimed to summarize environmental risk factors that can cause leptospirosis in human. Leptospirosis is one of the zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of animals that cause diseases when transmitted to humans. The bacteria that cause leptospirosis are Leptospira. Leptospira is pathogenic bacteria that are transmitted from animals to humans, directly or indirectly. Leptospirosis mainly found in the human who comes into contact with the urine of infected animals, urine-contaminated surface water, and soil in the environment or drinking water and food that contaminated with Leptospira. This review retrieved articles from four science databases, namely ProQuest, Scopus, Pubmed, and ScienceDirect. A systematic review was conducted using a predefined protocol based on PRISMA. The searching process utilizes three main keywords that include leptospirosis, risk factors, and humans in various combinations. During the initial search from four science databases (ProQuest, Scopus, Pubmed, and ScienceDirect), there were 506 articles retrieved. During the screening process, 59 articles excluded due to duplication, 403 articles excluded based on title and abstract incompatibility with inclusion criteria, 14 articles excluded due to not match of article content with inclusion criteria, and seven articles excluded because of the ineligibility with the study In the final screening process 23 articles were chosen to be analyzed. This review found the environmental risk factors that cause leptospirosis in humans are flooding, sanitation, household environment, and the presence of animal reservoir. Prevention is needed by improving the environment and dealing with flood problems properly

Keywords


Infectious Disease, Leptospirosis, Risk Factors, Environment, Human.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.37506/v11%2Fi2%2F2020%2Fijphrd%2F195076