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Joint Effect Obesity and Oral Contraceptive Use towards Hypertension among Women in Thirteen Provinces in Indonesia


Affiliations
1 Postgraduate Student, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Indonesia
2 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Indonesia
     

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Introduction: Hypertension complications cause 9,4 million people died in the whole world every year. Hypertension in a woman is more dangerous than man, as they affect mortality and morbidity not only at herself but also the fetus in a pregnant woman. Hypertension is stimulated by many risk factors, some of them were obesity and using oral contraception. The purpose of this study is to evaluate obesity, oral contraceptives use and their joint effect on the risk of hypertension among women in Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional study from Indonesian Life Family Survey 5 data, including 10.270 women with age ≥18 years old lives in Indonesia. Weight, Height and Blood Pressure were measured. Hypertensive respondents if the blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg, while obese defined by body mass index ≥ 27,5 kg/m2. History of contraceptive used, smoking behavior and age were investigated. The effect between the independent and dependent variables in this study can be determined by Prevalence Ratio (PR) and estimated under Cox Regression Model. Results: Our study showed that obesity, oral contraceptive used, and age significantly become risk factor of hypertension with PR (95% CI) respectively 2,12 (1,94–2,31); 1,21 (1,10–1,33); and 2,65 (2,42–2,91). Combination OC users and obesity significantly elevated the risk of hypertension by PR 2,149 (1,90–2,42) among women in Indonesia. Compared with OC, Obesity was more strongly associated with hypertension with PR 1,93 (1,74-2,13). Conclusions: Obesity, OC users and their joint effects significantly increased the risk of hypertension among women in thirteen Provinces in Indonesia. The way better to prevent being obese than preventing using OC in the case of hypertension.

Keywords

Hypertension; Obesity; Oral Contraceptive
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  • Joint Effect Obesity and Oral Contraceptive Use towards Hypertension among Women in Thirteen Provinces in Indonesia

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Authors

Kuuni Ulfah Naila El Muna
Postgraduate Student, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Indonesia
Helda
Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Indonesia

Abstract


Introduction: Hypertension complications cause 9,4 million people died in the whole world every year. Hypertension in a woman is more dangerous than man, as they affect mortality and morbidity not only at herself but also the fetus in a pregnant woman. Hypertension is stimulated by many risk factors, some of them were obesity and using oral contraception. The purpose of this study is to evaluate obesity, oral contraceptives use and their joint effect on the risk of hypertension among women in Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional study from Indonesian Life Family Survey 5 data, including 10.270 women with age ≥18 years old lives in Indonesia. Weight, Height and Blood Pressure were measured. Hypertensive respondents if the blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg, while obese defined by body mass index ≥ 27,5 kg/m2. History of contraceptive used, smoking behavior and age were investigated. The effect between the independent and dependent variables in this study can be determined by Prevalence Ratio (PR) and estimated under Cox Regression Model. Results: Our study showed that obesity, oral contraceptive used, and age significantly become risk factor of hypertension with PR (95% CI) respectively 2,12 (1,94–2,31); 1,21 (1,10–1,33); and 2,65 (2,42–2,91). Combination OC users and obesity significantly elevated the risk of hypertension by PR 2,149 (1,90–2,42) among women in Indonesia. Compared with OC, Obesity was more strongly associated with hypertension with PR 1,93 (1,74-2,13). Conclusions: Obesity, OC users and their joint effects significantly increased the risk of hypertension among women in thirteen Provinces in Indonesia. The way better to prevent being obese than preventing using OC in the case of hypertension.

Keywords


Hypertension; Obesity; Oral Contraceptive



DOI: https://doi.org/10.37506/v11%2Fi2%2F2020%2Fijphrd%2F194999