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Hair Mercury Exposure and Hypertension among Community Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining in Banten, Indonesia


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1 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok, Indonesia
     

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Background: Mercury was a heavy metal that persistent in the environment and harmful to human health and still used by Artisanal Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM), especially in Indonesia. Cimanggu was one of ASGM in Banten province who still active using mercury and had found high levels of mercury that exceed the threshold in wastewater and human hair. Mercury exposure can affect human health, such as hypertension. This research aimed to determine the levels of hair mercury, hypertension, and individual characteristics such as age, sex, and smoking habits. And also determine the association between hair mercury with hypertension among communities in ASGM. Material and Method: Design studies in this research using cross-sectional design. The data from BBTKLPP Jakarta datasheet “Analysis of Potential Impact of Risk Factors Environment Based for Disease Outbreaks on Interest Mining Society”. Retrieved data was hair mercury that analyzed in the laboratory BBTKLPP Jakarta using Mercury Analyzer (MA) 3000 with cold pavor method and blood pressure were measured directly two times using sphygmomanometer merk ABN and individual characteristics taken through a questionnaire. Totaling 100 samples analyzed were taken by quota sampling. Findings: Univariate test showed that most of the respondents had abnormally hair mercury levels (55%), hypertension 29%, woman 78%, smoking 23%, and > 40 years 46%. Chi-square test showed no significant association between hair mercury levels and hypertension (P value = 1, OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.42-2.40). Conclusion: Respondents who had normal or abnormally hair mercury levels had the same odds to have hypertension risk. Further research is needed by using a larger sample with high-intensity process mercury use to clarify the association of hair mercury levels with hypertension.

Keywords

Mercury, Hypertension, Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM).
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  • Hair Mercury Exposure and Hypertension among Community Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining in Banten, Indonesia

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Authors

Elvi Sahara Lubis
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok, Indonesia
Budi Hartono
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok, Indonesia

Abstract


Background: Mercury was a heavy metal that persistent in the environment and harmful to human health and still used by Artisanal Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM), especially in Indonesia. Cimanggu was one of ASGM in Banten province who still active using mercury and had found high levels of mercury that exceed the threshold in wastewater and human hair. Mercury exposure can affect human health, such as hypertension. This research aimed to determine the levels of hair mercury, hypertension, and individual characteristics such as age, sex, and smoking habits. And also determine the association between hair mercury with hypertension among communities in ASGM. Material and Method: Design studies in this research using cross-sectional design. The data from BBTKLPP Jakarta datasheet “Analysis of Potential Impact of Risk Factors Environment Based for Disease Outbreaks on Interest Mining Society”. Retrieved data was hair mercury that analyzed in the laboratory BBTKLPP Jakarta using Mercury Analyzer (MA) 3000 with cold pavor method and blood pressure were measured directly two times using sphygmomanometer merk ABN and individual characteristics taken through a questionnaire. Totaling 100 samples analyzed were taken by quota sampling. Findings: Univariate test showed that most of the respondents had abnormally hair mercury levels (55%), hypertension 29%, woman 78%, smoking 23%, and > 40 years 46%. Chi-square test showed no significant association between hair mercury levels and hypertension (P value = 1, OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.42-2.40). Conclusion: Respondents who had normal or abnormally hair mercury levels had the same odds to have hypertension risk. Further research is needed by using a larger sample with high-intensity process mercury use to clarify the association of hair mercury levels with hypertension.

Keywords


Mercury, Hypertension, Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM).



DOI: https://doi.org/10.37506/v11%2Fi1%2F2020%2Fijphrd%2F193833