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Influence of Mastication Rate on Prandial Glycemia among Prediabetics:An Observation


Affiliations
1 Department of Internal Medicine, KMC–Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India
2 PSG Institute of Medicsl Sciences, Coimbatore, India
3 Department of Physiology, Kanachur Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Internal Medicine, KMC – Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India
5 Department of Community Medicine, KMC – Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India
     

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Background: Thorough mastication has the potential to affect postprandial blood sugar levels (BSL) by improving digestibility and absorption of nutrients. Associations between mastication and glucose metabolism in diabetics have been shown in previous studies. However, the association between mastication and BSL in pre-diabetes has not been clarified. Our objective was to examine association between frequency of chewing and BSL in prediabetes population-based cohort.

Method: On attaining Institutions ethical committee clearance, considering all inclusion and exclusion criteria and after taking informed consent, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 95 prediabetic individuals. Subjects recruited to study received a fixed calorific load of 150 calories in form of 25 grams of groundnuts on two successive days. We decided to use groundnuts as substrate for our study as we hypothesized this would result in elevated cephalic phase insulin secretion, since it requires thorough mastication for deglutition and is rich in protein (26%), fat (49%) but little carbohydrate (16%), of which >50% is insoluble fiber. On Day 1 subjects were observed as they were chewing at their routine habituated rates without them being conscious that they are being observed while on Day 2 they were asked to chew each bolus forty times before swallowing. Postprandial BSL were estimated, all parameters and their obtained values were scrutinized on both days and data was statistically analyzed.

Results: On comparing the mean post prandial BSL between normal chewing versus 40 time chewing, statistically significant decrease was observed with respect to 40 chews per bolus (p < 0.000).

Conclusions: These findings support hypothesis that when in pre-diabetic individuals a simple yet effective method of thorough mastication will decrease postprandial BSL vis –a-vis faster chewing and swallowing.


Keywords

Prediabetes, Mastication Frequency, Groundnuts, Food, Blood Sugar.
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  • Influence of Mastication Rate on Prandial Glycemia among Prediabetics:An Observation

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Authors

Arun Shirali
Department of Internal Medicine, KMC–Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India
Nikhil Kenny Thomas
PSG Institute of Medicsl Sciences, Coimbatore, India
Priyanka Arun Shirali
Department of Physiology, Kanachur Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
Prakash Harishchandra
Department of Internal Medicine, KMC – Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India
Nitin Joseph
Department of Community Medicine, KMC – Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India
Priya Rathi
Department of Community Medicine, KMC – Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India

Abstract


Background: Thorough mastication has the potential to affect postprandial blood sugar levels (BSL) by improving digestibility and absorption of nutrients. Associations between mastication and glucose metabolism in diabetics have been shown in previous studies. However, the association between mastication and BSL in pre-diabetes has not been clarified. Our objective was to examine association between frequency of chewing and BSL in prediabetes population-based cohort.

Method: On attaining Institutions ethical committee clearance, considering all inclusion and exclusion criteria and after taking informed consent, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 95 prediabetic individuals. Subjects recruited to study received a fixed calorific load of 150 calories in form of 25 grams of groundnuts on two successive days. We decided to use groundnuts as substrate for our study as we hypothesized this would result in elevated cephalic phase insulin secretion, since it requires thorough mastication for deglutition and is rich in protein (26%), fat (49%) but little carbohydrate (16%), of which >50% is insoluble fiber. On Day 1 subjects were observed as they were chewing at their routine habituated rates without them being conscious that they are being observed while on Day 2 they were asked to chew each bolus forty times before swallowing. Postprandial BSL were estimated, all parameters and their obtained values were scrutinized on both days and data was statistically analyzed.

Results: On comparing the mean post prandial BSL between normal chewing versus 40 time chewing, statistically significant decrease was observed with respect to 40 chews per bolus (p < 0.000).

Conclusions: These findings support hypothesis that when in pre-diabetic individuals a simple yet effective method of thorough mastication will decrease postprandial BSL vis –a-vis faster chewing and swallowing.


Keywords


Prediabetes, Mastication Frequency, Groundnuts, Food, Blood Sugar.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.37506/v10%2Fi12%2F2019%2Fijphrd%2F192186