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Risk and Protective Factors among Adolescents:A Multilevel Analysis


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1 Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University , Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
     

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Adolescence is a stage of rapid psychosocial development that poses challenges to adaptation in those who lack the resources needed for adaptation. The adolescents from low socioeconomic rural backgrounds are at increased risk for psychosocial development. The risk factors, along with protective factors existing at multiple social-ecological levels, are critical in shaping the resilience of these adolescents. The present study examines the effect of multiple-level systems, viz., individual, family , school, extended family , neighborhood, social services, local policies, and mass media in contributing to psychological resilience among adolescents at-risk for healthy psychological development. A sample of 2010 adolescent students between 12 and 18 years of age from low SES studying in rural government schools who were recruited from nine schools to participate in this study completed a survey on protective factors and resilience. Interviews with parents, teachers, head teachers, district educational officers, personnel from NGOs, and media were conducted to understand the risk factors that thwart healthy development among rural adolescents. A series of one-way ANOV As and regression were employed to examine the effect of gender, areas of residence, and religion on protective factors. Interviews were content analyzed to understand the risk factors present in the lives of these adolescents studying in rural schools from low SES families. Adolescent girls, rural students, and those from religious minority groups endorsed lesser protective factors compared to their counterparts. Interview data revealed a lack of standardized procedures to identify vulnerable students, limited interaction between parents and school, and a restricted role played by NGOs and media in promoting resilience among young students. The findings have implications for future research, practice, and policy concerning adolescents at-risk.

Keywords

Resilience, Gender, Rural, Protective Factor , Risk Factor.
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  • Risk and Protective Factors among Adolescents:A Multilevel Analysis

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Authors

Narayanan Annalakshmi
Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University , Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract


Adolescence is a stage of rapid psychosocial development that poses challenges to adaptation in those who lack the resources needed for adaptation. The adolescents from low socioeconomic rural backgrounds are at increased risk for psychosocial development. The risk factors, along with protective factors existing at multiple social-ecological levels, are critical in shaping the resilience of these adolescents. The present study examines the effect of multiple-level systems, viz., individual, family , school, extended family , neighborhood, social services, local policies, and mass media in contributing to psychological resilience among adolescents at-risk for healthy psychological development. A sample of 2010 adolescent students between 12 and 18 years of age from low SES studying in rural government schools who were recruited from nine schools to participate in this study completed a survey on protective factors and resilience. Interviews with parents, teachers, head teachers, district educational officers, personnel from NGOs, and media were conducted to understand the risk factors that thwart healthy development among rural adolescents. A series of one-way ANOV As and regression were employed to examine the effect of gender, areas of residence, and religion on protective factors. Interviews were content analyzed to understand the risk factors present in the lives of these adolescents studying in rural schools from low SES families. Adolescent girls, rural students, and those from religious minority groups endorsed lesser protective factors compared to their counterparts. Interview data revealed a lack of standardized procedures to identify vulnerable students, limited interaction between parents and school, and a restricted role played by NGOs and media in promoting resilience among young students. The findings have implications for future research, practice, and policy concerning adolescents at-risk.

Keywords


Resilience, Gender, Rural, Protective Factor , Risk Factor.