Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

A Review on Synergistic Relationship between Nutrition and Exercise in Treating Depression


Affiliations
1 Department of Food and Nutrition Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Department of Food Processing Technology College of Community Science, UAS Dharwad, Karnataka, India
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


Depression has become a global problem seeking immediate attention tfom health practitioners and nutritionists. It is a mental disorder caused by a wide array of modifiable and non modifiable factors. People with depression exhibit mood swings, loss of interest or pleasure, disturbed sleep, feelings of guilt and poor concentration. Evidences have found a causal relationship between certain foods, physical inactivity, genetic factors and the development, progression and treatment of depression. In the past, most studies have only focused on the association of depression with specific nutrients or foods. But, the recent studies showcases that nutrition in synergy with exercise and adequate sleep can be far more effective in treating depression compared to when involved alone. This review summarizes the role of various macronutrients and micronutrients and influence of consistent exercise regimen in the neurotransmitter's synthesis and their regulation in influencing the mood and depressive symptoms of patients with depression. Although the efficacy of antidepressant drugs has also been well recognized but as prevention is better than cure, so is the role of these duo factors as a protective shield to pave away depression.

Keywords

Depression, Nutrition, Exercise, Neurotransmitters.
Subscription Login to verify subscription
User
Notifications
Font Size


  • Abou-Saleh, M. T., & Coppen, A. (2006). Folic acid and the treatment of depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, 285-287.
  • Alpert, J. E., & Fava, M. (1997). Nutrition and depression: The role of folate. ^Nutrition Reviews, 55, 145-149.
  • Appleton, K.M., Rogers, P.J., & Ness, A.R. (2010). Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91, 757 -770.
  • Ashoori, M., & Saedisomeolia, A. (2014). Riboflavin (vitamin B2) and oxidative stress: Areview. British Journal of Nutrition, 111, 1985-1991.
  • Ba, A. (2008). Metabolic and structural role of thiamine in nervous tissues. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 28,923-931.
  • Bae,H.S.,Kim, S.Y.,Ahnv,H.S., &Cho, Y.K. (2010). Comparison of nutrient intake, life style variables, and pregnancy outcomes by the depression degree of pregnant Nutrition Research andPractice, 4, 323-331.
  • Bae,Y.J.,&Kim, S.K. (2012). Low dietary calciumis associated with self-rated depression inmlACLQ-a.gQCK.oxQan'^omsii.NutritionResearchandPractice, d(6),527-533.
  • Bailey, L.B. (2007). Folic acid. In J. Zempleni, R.B. Rucker, D.B. McCormick, and J.W. Suttie (Eds.), Handbook of 'vitamins (4th ed.). CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group.
  • Beaulieu, J., & Gainetdinov, R. (2011). The physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine Reciptors.PharmacologicalReviews, 63(1), 182-217.
  • Begg, S., Vos, T., Barker, B., Stevenson, C., Stanley, L., & Lopez, A. (2007). The ^burden of disease and injury in Australia 2003. Australian Institute ofHealth and Welfare, [Canberra, A. C. T.]. Moving towards ICD-11 and DSM-V: Concept and evolution of psychiatric classification, pp. 154-156.
  • Bender, D.A. (1999). Non-nutritional uses of vitamin B-6. British .Journal of Nutrition, 81, 720.
  • Benton, D. (2002). Selenium intake, mood and other aspects of psychological fvineXioning.NutritionalNeuroscience, 5, 363-374.
  • Berk, M., Sanders, K. M., Pasco, J.A., Jacka, F.N., Williams, L.J., Hayles, A.L., & Dodd, S. (2007). Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in depression. Medical Hypotheses, 69,1316-1319.
  • Bernstein, H. G., Lotz, G.M., Dobrowolny, H., Bannier, J., Steiner, J., Walter, M., & Bogerts, B. (2015). Reduced density of glutamine synthetase immunoreactive astrocytes in different cortical areas in major depression but not in bipolar I disorder. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 9, 273.
  • Bourre, J.M. (2006). Effect of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: Update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: Micronutrients. Journal of Nutrition, IHealth and Aging, 10,377-385.
  • Chamey, D.S. (2004). Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: Implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress. American Journal of Ps^chiatr^, 161,195-216.
  • Collins, P.Y., Patel, V., Joestl, S.S., March, D., Insel, T.R., Daar, A.S., Anderson, W., Dhansay, M.A., Phillips, A., & Shurin, S. (2011). Grand challenges in global mental health. 475, 27-30.
  • Coppen, A., & Bailey, J. (2000). Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomized placebo controlled trial. .Journal of Affective Disorders, 60, 121-130.
  • Cuijpers,P.,Driessen, E.,Hollon, S.D., van Oppen,P., Barth, J.,&Andersson, G. (2012). The efficacy of non-directive supportive therapy for adult depression: A metaanalysis. Clinical Psychology Review, .52(4), 280-291.
  • David, S., Cook, I. A., Davydov, D.M., Ottaviani, C., Leuchter, A. F., & Abrams, M. (2007). Yoga as a complementary treatment of depression: Effects of traits and moods on treatment outcome. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ^(4)^493.502.
  • Davidson, J. R. T., Abraham, K., Connor, K. M., & McLeod, M. N. (2003). Effectiveness of chromium in atypical depression: A placebo-controlled trial. Biological Psychiatry, 53,261-264.
  • De Oliveira, I.J., De Souza, V.V., Motta, V., & Da-Silva, S.L. ( 2015). Effects of oral vitamin c supplementation on anxiety in students: A double-blind, randomized, placQho-controWQdtrial.Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 18(1), 11-18.
  • Docherty, J., Sack, D.A., Roffman, M., Finch, M., & Komorowski, J.R. (2005). A double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: Effect on carbohydrate craving. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 11, 302-314.
  • Duntas, L.H., Mantzou, E., & Koutras, E.A. (2003). Effects of a six month treatment with selenomethionine in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. European Journal of Endocrinology, 148,389-393.
  • Eby, G.A., & Eby, K.L. (2006). Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. 67, 362-370.
  • Emily, K., Tarleton, M.S., & Littenberg, B. (2015). Magnesium intake and depression in adults. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 28,249-256.
  • Eyles, D.W., Smith, S., Kinobe, R., Hewison, M., & McGrath, J.J. (2005). Distribution of the vitamin D receptor and 1 alpha-hydroxylase in human brain. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 29, 21-30.
  • Frisco, M.L., Houle, J. N., & Martin, M. A. (2010). The image in the mirror and the number on the scale: Weight, weight perceptions, and adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal ofHealth and Social Behavior, 57(2), 215-228.
  • Frye, M., Tsai, G. E., Huggins, T., Coyle, J. T., & Post, R. M. (2007). Low cerebrospinal fluid glutamate and glycine in refractory affective disorder, biological Psychiatry, 67(2), 162-166.
  • Ghanbari,Z.,Haghollahi,F., Shariat, M.,Foroshani,A.R., &Ashrafi,M. (2009). Effects of calcium supplement therapy in women with premenstrual syndrome. Taiwanese Journal ofObstetrics and Gynecology, 48, 124-129.
  • Greenwood, M. (2017). Catecholamines: Definition and function. Study.com (referenced 2017/8/06) URL: http://study.com/academy/lesson/catecholamines- definition-function.html
  • Grosso, G., Pajak, A., Marventano, S., Castellano, S., Galvano, F., Bucolo, C., Drago, F., & Carac, F. (2014). Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: A comprehensive meta analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One, 9(5),e96905.
  • Grover, S.,Dutt, A., &Avasthi,A. (2010). An overview oflndian research in depression. Indian .Journal of Psychiatry, 52(1), 178-188.
  • Hamer, M., Bates, C.J., & Mishra, G.D. (2011). Depression, physical function, and risk of mortality: National diet and nutrition survey in adults older than 65 years. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19,72-78.
  • Hashimoto, K., Sawa, A., & lyo, M. (2007). Increased levels of glutamate in brains from patients with mood disorders, biological Psychiatry, 62(11), 1310-1316.
  • Hirsch, J.A., & Parrott, J. (2012). New considerations on the neuromodulatory role of thiamine .Pharmacology,89, 111-116.
  • Humble, M.B. (2010). Vitamin D, light andmental health. Journal ofPhotochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 767(2), 142-149.
  • Inderjeeth, C.A., Nicklason, F., Al-Lahham, Y., Greenaway, T.M., Jones, G., Parameswaran, V.V., & David, R. (2000). Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism: Clinical and biochemical associations in older non- institutionalised Southern Tasmanians. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 30(2), 209-214.
  • Jacka, F., & Berk, M. (2007), Food for thought. 19,321-323.
  • Kaplan, H.I., Sadoc, B.J., & Grebb, J.A. (2003). S;^-napsis of psychiatry (9th ed.). Wiliams and Wilkins: USA.
  • Kashif, S. M., Zaidi, R., & Banu, N. (2004). Antioxidant potential of vitamins A, E, and C in modulating oxidative stress in rat brain. Clinica ChimicaActa, 340, 229-233.
  • Kennedy, D.O. (2016). B vitamins and the brain: Mechanisms, dose and efficacy: A review. Nutrients, 5(2), 68.
  • Khanzode, S. D., Dakhale, G. N., Khanzode, S.S., Saoji, A., & Palasodkar, R. (2003). Oxidative damage and major depression: The potential antioxidant action of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Redox Repot, 8, 365-370.
  • Kommeier, J., & Sosic-Vasic, Z. (2012). Parallels between spacing effects during behavioral and cellular learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6(6), 203.
  • Kucukibrahimoglu, E., Saygin, M., QaliĀ§kan, M., Kaplan, O., Unsal, C., & Goren, M. Z. (2009). The change in plasma GABA, glutamine and glutamate levels in fluoxetine- or Scitalopram-treated female patients with major depression. European .Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 65(6), 571-577.
  • Kuloglu, M., Atmaca, M., Tezcan, E., Ustundag, B., & Bulut, S. (2002). Antioxidant enzyme and malondialdehyde levels in patients with panic disorder. Neuropsychobiology, 46,186-189.
  • Levenson, C.W. (2006). Zinc,thenewantidepressant?6, 39-42.
  • Levine, J., Panchalingam, K., Rapoport, A., Gershon, S., McClure, R. J., &Pettegrew, J. W. (2000). Increased cerebrospinal fluid glutamine levels in depressed patients. Biological Psychiatry, 47{1)., 586-593.
  • Lopez, A. D., Mathers, C.D., Ezzati, M., Jamison, D.T., & Murray, C.J. (2006). Global burden of disease and riskfactors. The international bank for reconstruction and development/ the world bank. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/books/NBKl 1812/ Co-published by Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Maes, M., De Vos, N., Pioli, R., Demedts, P., Wauters, A., Neels, H., & Christophe, A. (2000). Lower serum vitamin E concentrations in major depression. Another marker of lowered antioxidant defenses in that illness. Journal of Affective Disorders, 58, 241-246.
  • Mahshid, N., Amani, R., Nutr, R., Nematpour, S., & Haghighizadeh, M. H. (2011). Riboflavin status and its association with serum hs-CRP levels among clinical nurses with depression. Journal of ^he American College ofNutrition, 30{5), 340-347.
  • Mann, J. J., Huang, Y. Y., Underwood, M.D., Kassir, S.A., Oppenheim, S., Kelly, T.M., Dwork, A.J., & Arango, V. (2000). A serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and prefrontal cortical binding in major depression and suicides Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(8), 729-738.
  • Mathews, C., Van, H.K., Appling, D., & Anthony, C. S. (2013). biochemistry (4th ed.). Toronto: Pearson, pp.895-896.
  • McLeod, M.N., & Golden, R.N. (2000). Chromium treatment of depression. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 3(4), 311-314.
  • McNaughton, N. (2010). Approach-avoidance conflict. In I. B. Weiner and W. E. Craighead (Eds.), The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology (4th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 138139). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Meldrum, B.S. (2000). Glutamate as a neurotransmitter in the brain: Review of physiology and pathology. 130(4), 1007-1015.
  • Meyers, S. (2000). Use of neurotransmitter precursors for treatment of depression. Alternative Medicine Review, 5(1), 64-71.
  • Michalsen, A. Grossman, P., Acil, A., Langhorst, J., Ludtke, R., Esch, T., Stefano, G., & Dobos, G. (2005). Rapid stress reduction and anxiolysis among depressed women as a consequence of three month intensive yoga program. Medical Science Monitor, 77(12), 555-561.
  • Miller, A. L. (2008). The methylation, neurotransmitter, and antioxidant connections between folate and depression. Alternative Medicine Review, 75(3), 216-226.
  • Mitani, H., Shirayama, Y., Yamada, T., Maeda, K., Ashby, Jr.C. R., & Kawahara, R. (2006). Correlation between plasma levels of glutamate, alanine and serine with severity of depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 50(6), 1155-1158.
  • Motl, R.W., Bimbaum, A.S., Kubik, M.Y., & Dishman, R.K. (2004). Naturally occurring changes in physical activity are inversely related to depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 336-342.
  • Murakami, K., & Sasaki, S. (2010). Dietary intake and depressive symptoms: A systematic review of observational studies. Molecular Nutrition a~nd Food Research, 54(4) 471-488.
  • Murphy, P.K., & Wagner, C.L. (2008). Vitamin D and mood disorders among women: An integrative review. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 55(5), 440-446.
  • Naidu, K.A. (2003). Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery? An overwiew. Journal ofNutrition, 2, 7-16.
  • Noorazar, S.G., Ranjbar, F., Nemati, N., Yasamineh, N., & Kalejahi, P. (2015). Relationship between severity of depression symptoms and iron deficiency anemia in women with major depressive disorder. Journal of Analytical Research in Clinical Medicine, 3(4),29-224.
  • Nowak, G., & Szewczyk, A. (2005). Zinc and depression, an update. Pharmacological Reports, 57, 713-718
  • Nutt, D., Koen, D., Zoltan, J., Trond, A., Michel, B., Luigi, C.P., Luis, C. J., & Steven, S. (2007). The other face of depression, reduced positive affect: The role of catecholamines in causation and cure. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 21, 461471.
  • Owen, A. J., Batterham, M. J.,Probst,Y. C., Grenyer, B. F., & Tapsell, L. C. (2005). Low plasma vitamin E levels in major depression: Diet or disease? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 304-306.
  • Papakostas, G. I., Petersen, T., Lebowitz, B.D., Mischoulon, D., Ryan, J.L., Nierenberg, A.A., Bottiglieri, T., Alpert, J.E., Rosenbaum, J.F., & Fava, M. (2006). The relationship between serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels in major depressive disorder and the timing of improvement with fluoxetine. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 8(4), 523-528.
  • Pasco, J.A., Henry, M.J., Nicholson, G.C., Sanders, K.M., & Kotowicz, M.A. (2001). Vitamin D status of women in the Geelong osteoporosis study: Association with diet and casual exposure to sunlight. Medical Journal of Australia, 775(8), 401-405.
  • Pasco, J.A., Williams, L.J., Jacka, F.N., Ng, F., Henry, M.J., Nicholson, G.C., Kotowicz, M.A., & Berk, M. (2008). Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder: A population-based study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 795(4), 322-326.
  • Patrick, H. (2003). Depression: The nutrition connection. Primary CareMentalHealth, 1, 9-16.
  • Paul, I., Turner, R.E., & Ross, D. (2002). Update nutrition (8th ed.). John Pow Company: USA.
  • Phillips, K.A. (2000). Quality of life for patients with body dysmorphic disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 188(3), 170-175.
  • Prousky, J. (2010). Vitamin B3 for depression: Case report and review of the literature. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 25(3), 137-147.
  • Rao, S.T. S. (2009). Expert more from us. Indian Jour-nal of Psychiatry, 57(1), 12.
  • Robert, J.H. (2010). Health Matters. Nutrition and Depression: State of the Science and Treatment, Part IDoes nutrition affect depression? Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.eom/blog/health-matters/201011/nutrition-and- depression-state-the-science-and-treatment-part-1
  • Rogers, P.J. (2001). A healthy body, a healthy mind: Long-term impact of diet on mood and cognitive function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 60,135-143.
  • Roy, A., Evers, S.E., Avison, W.R., & Campbell, M.K. (2010). Higher zinc intake buffers the impact of stress on depressive symptoms in pregnancy. Nutrition Research, 30,695-704.
  • Rucker, R.B., & Bauerly, K. (2013). Pantothenic acid: In handbook of 'vitamins (5th ed.). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2013.
  • Sapolsky, R.M. (2000). Glucocorticoids andhippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric 6isoxdeis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(10), 925-35.
  • Scapagnini, G., Davinelli, S., Drago, F., De Lorenzo, A., & Oriani, G. (2012). Antioxidants as antidepressants: Fact or fiction? CNSDrugs, 26,477-449
  • Serefko,A., Szopa, A., Wlaz, P., Nowak, G., Radziwon, Z.M., Skalski, M., &Poleszak, E. (2013). 'MagpQsiumindepxQssion.Phar'macologicalReports, 65(3),547-554.
  • Shapiro, D., Cook, I.A., Davydov, D.M., Ottaviani, C., Leuchter, A.F., & Abrams, M. (2007). Yoga as a complementary treatment of depression: Effects of traits and moods on treatment outcome. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 4(4), 493-502.
  • Shor-Posner, G., Miguez, M.J., Pineda, L.M., Rodriguez, A., Ruiz, P., Castillo, G., Burbano, X., Lecusay, R., Baum, M., & Wilkie, F. (2003). Psychological burden in the era of HAART: Impact of selenium therapy. International Journal of Psychiatry inMedicine, 33,55-69.
  • Sies, H., Stahl, W., & Sundquist, A. R. (1992). Antioxidant functions of vitamins vitamin E and C a carotene and other carotenoids. Annals of the New YorkAcademy of Sciences, 669, 7-20.
  • Sinigaglia, C. R., Lopes, A.C., & Coimbra, C.G. (2011). Riboflavin deficiency, brain function, and health. In Handbook of Behavior, Food and Nutrition; Springer: Berlin, Germany, pp. 427-449.
  • Stahl, S.M. (2008). L-methylfolate: A vitamin for your monoamines. Jornal of cinical Psychiatry, 69, 1352-1353.
  • Strohle, A. (2009). Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders. Journal of Neural Transmission, 776(6), 777-784.
  • Su, K. P., Huang, S.Y.C., Chih-Chiang, S., & Winston, W. (2003). Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder: A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Neuropsychopharmacolog^, 75(4), 267-271.
  • Susan, J., & Caryl, A. (2008). Dietary electrolytes are related to mood. British Journal of Nutrition, 100,1038-1045.
  • Tanskanen, A.,Hibbeln, J.R., Hintikka J., Haatainen, K., Honkalampi, K., & Viinamaki H. (2001). Fish consumption, depression, and suicidality in a general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 512-513.
  • Tiemeier, H., van Tuijl, H. R., Hofman, A., Meijer, J., Kiliaan, A. J., Monique, M.B., & Breteler (2002). Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: The rotterdarn study .American Journal of Psychiatry, 159,2099-2101.
  • Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M.T., Mazur, M., & Telser, J. (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 39,44-84.
  • Via, M. (2012). The malnutrition of obesity: Micronutrient deficiencies that pro-mote diabetes. ISRNEndocrinology, 2012,103-472. http://doi.org/10.5402/2012/103472
  • Villegas, S.A. , Henriquez, P., Bes-Rastrollo, M., & Doreste, J. (2006). Mediterranean diet and depression .PublicHealthNutrition, 9(8), 1104-1109.
  • WHO (2017). Facts sheet No 369: Depression. Accessed on the 28th of June 2017. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/
  • Zarshenas, S., Houshvar, P., & Tahmasebi, A (2013). The effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression and body image in Iranian women. Depression Research and Treatment,Article 132684, pp. 1-6.
  • Zhang, G., Ding, H., Chen, H., Xingwang, Y., Li, H., Lin, X., & Ke, Z. (2013). Thiamine nutritional status and depressive symptoms are inversely associated among older chinese adult.JoumalofNutrition, 745(1),53-58.

Abstract Views: 5

PDF Views: 0




  • A Review on Synergistic Relationship between Nutrition and Exercise in Treating Depression

Abstract Views: 5  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

P. Dhami
Department of Food and Nutrition Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
P. Pandey
Department of Food and Nutrition Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
A. Kaur
Department of Food and Nutrition Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
K. Kaur
Department of Food and Nutrition Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
C. Kavitha
Department of Food Processing Technology College of Community Science, UAS Dharwad, Karnataka, India

Abstract


Depression has become a global problem seeking immediate attention tfom health practitioners and nutritionists. It is a mental disorder caused by a wide array of modifiable and non modifiable factors. People with depression exhibit mood swings, loss of interest or pleasure, disturbed sleep, feelings of guilt and poor concentration. Evidences have found a causal relationship between certain foods, physical inactivity, genetic factors and the development, progression and treatment of depression. In the past, most studies have only focused on the association of depression with specific nutrients or foods. But, the recent studies showcases that nutrition in synergy with exercise and adequate sleep can be far more effective in treating depression compared to when involved alone. This review summarizes the role of various macronutrients and micronutrients and influence of consistent exercise regimen in the neurotransmitter's synthesis and their regulation in influencing the mood and depressive symptoms of patients with depression. Although the efficacy of antidepressant drugs has also been well recognized but as prevention is better than cure, so is the role of these duo factors as a protective shield to pave away depression.

Keywords


Depression, Nutrition, Exercise, Neurotransmitters.

References