Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Assessment and Management of Negative Mood States among Males with Substance Dependence
The country is flooded with substances that lift you up, cool you down and turn you upside down. The cost of money and emotional turmoil has made the issue of substance abuse a major concern worldwide. This research was also an attempt to assess and manage such emotional turmoils (negative mood states) among males with substance dependence. Objectives were to develop an assessment tool, to develop an intervention program and to study its etfect on negative mood states. Here negative mood states were anxiety, depression, guilt and anger while intervention program included yoga therapy, relaxation therapy, adaptive skills training and psycho education. Four directional hypotheses were formulated to analyze the effect of intervention program on negative mood states. Negative mood states were assessed by mood states questionnaire developed by the researcher. 100 male subjects trom 16 to 60 years of age having multiple substance dependence were selected through purposive sampling. Prepost control group design was used to collect data and the data for four hypotheses was analyzed by using t- test. Results showed that three hypotheses were accepted at 0.01 level of significance except one related to guilt. This research is significant in providing a new negative mood states assessment tool, a new intervention program for managing negative mood states and preparing subjects for relapse prevention after treatment.
Negative Mood States, Substance Dependence, Intervention Program, Relapse Prevention.
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). diagnostic and statistical manual ofmental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC.
- Bahrke, M.S. (1979). Exercise, meditation and anxiety reduction: A review. American Corrective Therapy Journal, 33(2), 41-44.
- Bali, L. R. (1979). Long term effect of relaxation on blood pressure and anxiety levels of essential hypertensive males: A controlled study. Pshycicomatic Medicine, 47(8), 23-34.
- Barlow, D. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The mature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.,pp. 75-79). New York: GuilfordPress.
- Brandon, T.H., Tiffany, S.T., Obremski, K.M., & Baker, T.B. (1990). Post cessation cigarette use: The process of relapse. AddictiveBehaviour, 75(2), 105-114.
- Chauhan, S.K.S. (1992). Role ofyogic exercises in the withdrawal symptoms of drug- addicts. YogaMimamsa, 30(4), 21-23.
- Childress, A.R. (1994). Can induced moods trigger drug-related responses in opiate ahusopationtsl Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 77(1), 17-23.
- Clark, L.A., & Watson, D. (1984). Negative effectivity: The disposition to experience negative aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96,465-490.
- D'Zurilla, T.J., &Nezu, A.M. (1999). ^Handbook of cognitive "behavioural therapies (3rd ed., p. 198). New York: Guilford Publication.
- Gebhard, H., & Bernard, P. (2008). Relationship between mood states and substance use amonga adolescents .Mental Health and Substance Use:DualDiagnosis, 1(3),242-253.
- Gharote, S. (1982). Effect of yogic training of strength and endurance on abdominal muscles offomalo. SNIPES Journals, 5, 32-40.
- Gore, M.M. (2008). Anatomy and physiology of-yogic practices (4th ed., pp. 97-135). NewAgeBookPublishers.
- Green, E.E. (1971). The varieties of healing experiences-exploring psychicphenomenon in healing. Paper delivered at symposium on Mind/body self regulation, healing and creativity. Academy of parapsychology and medicine, Stanford University.
- Hollon, S.D. (2001). Behavioural activation treatment for depression: A commentary; the practice. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5(3), 271-274.
- Holloway, J.D. (2003). Article on anger management. Advances in anger management, 34(3), 54. Retrieved from www.angermgmt.com/substance_abuse.asp.
- Jacobson, E. (1924). The technique of progressive relaxation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 60(6), 568-578.
- Kamakhya, K. (2009). A study of improvement of physical and mental health through YogaNidra. Dev Sanskriti Journal, 4(4), 20-29.
- Karambelkal, E., & Bhole, B.S. (1970). Effect of short-term yogic training on physical and physiological training. Sports Medicine, 4(13), 18-23.
- Kenneth, M., Carpenter, J.L., Smith, E.A., & Edward, V.N. (2008). Developing therapies for depression in drug dependence: Results of a stage 1 therapy study. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, .54(5), 642 652.
- Knapp, C. (1997). Drinking: A love story (p. 23). Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, New York.
- Mallapur, C. (2015). India soaring drug problem: 45 % rise in seizures. India Spent. Annexure referred to in reply to question no. 227 for answer in lok sabha, 09th Dec 2014. Retrieved from www.indiaspend.com/cover-story/indias-soaring-drug-problem-455-risein-seizers-26787.
- Marlatt, G.A., & Gordon, J.R. (Eds.) (1985). Relapse prevention: Maintenance strategies in the treatment of addictive behaviors (pp. 130-134). New York, Guilford Press.
- Methew, R.J. (1981). Anxiety and platelets MAO levels after relaxation training. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138(3), 371-373.
- Miller & Hester (1986). The impact of substance abuse education as a component of an aftercare programme. International Journal of Addiction, 15(6), 821-838.
- Monti, P. et al. (2002). Substance abuse treatmentfor youth and adults: Clinician's guide (pp. 279-284). Cognitive behavioral coping skills therapy for adults. John Wiley and Sons. Publishers.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse, National survey on drug abuse (2013-2015). Retrieved fromhttps://www.drugabuse.gov/national-survey-drug-use-health.
- Nespor, K. (2001). Addiction. Paper presented. Department of Addictions. Prague Psychiatric Hospital, Czech Republic.
- Nilsson, R. (1997). Pictures of the drain's activity during Yoga Nidra: Bindu no.ll. Available at: http:/yogaforyou.ac.in/yogatherapy.htm.
- Olson, K.R. (2006). Aliterature review of social mood. .Journal of Behavioural Finance, 7(3), 13-22.
- Radha, S.S. (2006). Hatha Yoga- The hidden language (7th ed., pp. 64-69). Iyengar, B.K.S. (editor). Jaico Publication house.
- Ramachandran, S.V. (2012). Encyclopaedia of human behaviour (2nded., p. 352). Academic Press of Elsevier.
- Sabine, M.G., Klaus, W., Chantal, P.M., Ulrike, A., & Andreas, H. (2005). Immigration- associated variables and substance dependence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66, 98-104.
- Salmans, S. (1997). Depression: Questions you have -answers you need. People's Medical Society. Retrieved from www.psynet.com
- Saraswati, S. (2005). YogaNidra (6th.ed.,pp. 93-108). Yoga Publication Trust.
- Schucman, H., & Thetford, C. (1975). A course in miracle (p. 24). New York: Viking Penguin.
- Shapiro, D. (2007). Yoga as a complementary treatment of depression: Effects of traits and moods on treatment outcome. Evidence-Based Complement Alternative Medicine, 4(4), 493-502.
- Sharf, R.S. (1999). Theories of psychotherapy and counseling, concepts and cases (2nd ed., pp. 332-367). Wadsworth Publishing Company.
- Strickland, B.R. (2001). Encyclopedia of psychology (2nded.,p. 710). Gale Group.
- Tessler, R., & Mechanic, D. (1978). Psychological distress and perceived health status. Journal of Health a-nd Social Behaviour, 19,254-262.
- Thayer, R.E., & Newman, J.R., & McClain, T.M. (1994). Self-regulation of mood: Strategies for changing a bad mood, raising energy, and reducing tension. .Journal of Personality a-nd Social Psychology, 67(5), 910-925.
- United Nations office on Drugs & Crime: World Drug Report (2016). New York. Retrieved fromhttps://www.unodc.org>wrd2016
- Velasquez et al. (2001). Motivational interviewing in health promotion: It sounds like something is changing. Health Psychology, 21(5), 444-445.
- Videbeck, S.L. (2006). Psychiatric cental health cursing (3rd ed). (pp. 39). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publication.
- Walton, W. (1981). The use of relaxation curriculum and biofeedback training to reduce inappropriate behaviour in emotionally handicap children. BehaviouralDisorders, 5(1), 10-18.
- Weiser, S. (2003). Structural-yoga therapy-adapting to the individual (1sted.). Mukunda Slites, Library of Congress cataloguing in publication data. Word Drug Report (2006). United nations office on drugs and crime, retrieved from www.unodc.org/pdf/WDR_2006/wdr2006_chap6_consumption.pdf. retrieved on 2306-2010.
Abstract Views: 5
PDF Views: 0