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Common Types and Methods of Drug Usage in Iran:A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Affiliations
1 Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Iran, Islamic Republic of
2 Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Iran, Islamic Republic of
3 Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Shahid Mostafa Khomaeini Hospital, Iran, Islamic Republic of
4 MSc of Epidemiology, Student Research Commitstee, Ilam University of Medical sciences, Ilam, Iran, Islamic Republic of
5 Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Iran, Islamic Republic of
6 PHD of Sociology, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran, Islamic Republic of
     

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Introduction: Drug usage is a prevalent social and health problem in most countries. The highest prevalence of drug abuse has been reported among people aged 30-40 years old. The purpose of this study was to determination of the types of drugs and the methods of drug usage in Iran in a systematic and meta-analysis study.

Methods: This study was performed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Databases of SID, Iran Doc, ISI, Cochrane library, Science direct, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus were independently searched by two researchers using MeSH keywords. Articles published between 2004 and 2018 were recruited. Data was analyzed using random effectsmodel using STATA-SE12 software. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated using, T2 and I2statistical indices.

Results: Initial search retrieved 90 articles from which 7 articles with desirable quality were finally analyzed. Opium was the most common in used narcotic50 %(95% CI: 35-66%) followed by opium extract44%(95% CI: 5-83%), and heroin 19%(95% CI: 12-26%). Using more than one narcotic was observed in 9% (95% CI: 4-15%). The inhalation was the most common method of usage72 %( 95% CI: 61-83%) followed by oral consumption 32% (95% CI: 9-54%) and injection 14%( 95% CI: 05-24%).

Conclusion: Drug abuseis a common phenomenon in Iran. It is amenable to reduce the tendency to using drugs by providing appropriate training, informing the risks of drug abuse, and identifying and educating high-risk groups.


Keywords

Drug Usage, Meta-Analysis, Iran.
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  • Common Types and Methods of Drug Usage in Iran:A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Authors

Hamid Taghinejad
Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Ali Khorshidi
Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Noorollah Yadeghari
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Shahid Mostafa Khomaeini Hospital, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Walieh Menati
MSc of Epidemiology, Student Research Commitstee, Ilam University of Medical sciences, Ilam, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Aziz Kassani
Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Taha Ashayeri
PHD of Sociology, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Abstract


Introduction: Drug usage is a prevalent social and health problem in most countries. The highest prevalence of drug abuse has been reported among people aged 30-40 years old. The purpose of this study was to determination of the types of drugs and the methods of drug usage in Iran in a systematic and meta-analysis study.

Methods: This study was performed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Databases of SID, Iran Doc, ISI, Cochrane library, Science direct, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus were independently searched by two researchers using MeSH keywords. Articles published between 2004 and 2018 were recruited. Data was analyzed using random effectsmodel using STATA-SE12 software. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated using, T2 and I2statistical indices.

Results: Initial search retrieved 90 articles from which 7 articles with desirable quality were finally analyzed. Opium was the most common in used narcotic50 %(95% CI: 35-66%) followed by opium extract44%(95% CI: 5-83%), and heroin 19%(95% CI: 12-26%). Using more than one narcotic was observed in 9% (95% CI: 4-15%). The inhalation was the most common method of usage72 %( 95% CI: 61-83%) followed by oral consumption 32% (95% CI: 9-54%) and injection 14%( 95% CI: 05-24%).

Conclusion: Drug abuseis a common phenomenon in Iran. It is amenable to reduce the tendency to using drugs by providing appropriate training, informing the risks of drug abuse, and identifying and educating high-risk groups.


Keywords


Drug Usage, Meta-Analysis, Iran.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.37506/v14%2Fi1%2F2020%2Fijfmt%2F192896