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The paper’s aim is to examine the dependence of the quality of the business environment on defined technological factors (availability of human capital and research and development infrastructure) and to define and quantify significant technological factors that create the quality of the business environment in the SMEs segment. Part of its goal was the comparison of the defined factors between the Czech Republic (CR) and the Slovak Republic (SR). In connection with the stated research goal, a questionnaire survey was conducted among businesses operating in the SME segment. Through this research, 312 companies were surveyed in the Czech Republic and 329 companies in the Slovak Republic. To achieve the primary goal of the article, methods such as correlation analysis and multiple linear regression modelling (t-tests, F-ratio, adjusted coefficient of determination, and so on) were applied. The results of the research have brought interesting findings. Research and development infrastructure, as well as the availability of human capital are important factors that have a positive impact on the business environment in both countries.