Fear of Failure and Entrepreneurial Risk Perception
The present study provides an understanding of the role of fear of failure in entrepreneurial decision making by examining the mediating role of appraisal dimensions through the study of the impact of fear (state and trait) on entrepreneurial risk perception and using the cognitive-motivational-relational process and the Appraisal Tendencies Framework as based theories. Using a sample of students, we confirmed that trait fear is significantly related with higher entrepreneurial risk perception and this relation is mediated by cognitive appraisal dimensions especially the certainty theme. The same relationship is not confirmed for the state fear, even the statistical difference between students in entrepreneurial risk perception due to state fear condition.
- Nefzi, N. (2018). Fear of failure and entrepreneurial risk perception. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge, 6(2), 45-58. Doi : 10.2478/IJEK-2018-0013
- Alkhazaleh Z. M., & Mahasneh A. M. (2016). Fear of failure among a sample of Jordanian undergraduate students. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 9, 53-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S96384
- Arenius, P., & Minniti, M. (2005). Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 24, 233-247. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-005-1984-x
- Barlow, D.H. (2000). Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory. American Psychologist, 55, 1245-1263.
- Cacciotti G, Hayton James C., Mitchell J. Robert, & Giazitzoglu A. (2016). A reconceptualization of fear of failure in entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 31, 302-325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2016.02.002
- Cacciotti G, & Hayton James C. (2014). Fear of failure and entrepreneurship: A review and direction for future research, Enterprise Research Centre, Research Paper no. 24. Retrieved from http://www.entrepriseresearch.ac.uk.
- Conroy, D. E., Poczwardowski, A., & Henschen, K. P. (2001). Evaluative criteria and consequences associated with failure and success for elite athletes and performing artists. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 13, 300-322.
- Conroy, D. E., Metzler, J. N., & Willow, J. P. (2002). Multidimensional fear of failure measurement: the performance failure appraisal inventory. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 76-90. http://www.personal.psu.edu/dec9
- Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes’s error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: G.P. Putnam.
- Dickson P. R., & Giglierano J. J., (1986). Missing the boat and sinking the boat: A conceptual model of entrepreneurial risk. Journal of Marketing, 50(3), 58-70.
- Forlani, D., & Mullins, J.W. (2000). Perceived risks and choices in entrepreneurs’ new venture decisions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(4), 305-322.
- Foo, M.D. (2009). Emotions and entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(2), 375-393. http://www.personal.psu.edu/dec9
- Frijda, N. (1988). The laws of emotion. American Psychologist, 43, 349-358.
- Hessels, J., Grilo, I., Thurik, R., & Van der Zwan, P. (2011). Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement. Journal Evolutionary Economics, 21, 447-471.
- Kahraman N., & Sungur S. (2016). Adaptation of the performance failure appraisal inventory (PFAI) into Turkish, Ahi Evran Universitesi Kırsehir Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi (KEFAD), 17(3), 223-239.
- Kavanagh, D.J., & Bower, G.H. (1985). Mood and self-efficacy: Impact of joy and sadness on perceived capabilities. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 507-525.
- Krueger Jr., N., & Dickson, P. (1994). How believing in ourselves increases risk-taking: perceived self-efficacy and opportunity recognition. Decision Science. 25(3), 385-400.
- Li, Y., (2011). Emotions and new venture judgment in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 28, 277-298. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-009-9145-4
- Lazarus, R.S. (1991a). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Lazarus, R.S. (1991b). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46, 819-834.
- Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York: Springer.
- Lerner JS. & Keltner D. (2000). Beyond valence: toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgment and choice, Cognition and Emotion, 14(4), 473-493. http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/02699931.html
- Lerner JS, & Keltner D. (2001). Fear, anger, and risk, Journal of Personalility, Sociology and Psychololgy, 81, 146-59. http://doi.org/10.1037//O022-3518.104.22.168
- Lerner, JS., Ye Li, Piercarlo Valdesolo, & Karim S. Kassam (2014). Emotion and decision Making, Annual Review of Psychology, 66. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115043
- MacCrimmon, K., & Wehrung, D.A., (1990). Characteristics of risk taking executives. Management Science, 36(4), 422-435.
- March, J.G., & Shapira, Z., (1987). Managerial perspectives on risk and risk taking. Management Science, 33(11), 1404-1418.
- Mullins, J.W., & Forlani, D. (2005). Missing the boat or sinking the boat: A study of new venture decision making. Journal of Business Venturing, 20, 47-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2003.08.001
- Noguera, M., Alvarez, C., & Urbano, D. (2013). Socio-cultural factors and female entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9, 183-197.
- Palich, L.E., & Bagby, D.R., (1995). Using cognitive theory to explain entrepreneurial risk-Taking: challenging conventional wisdom. Journal of Business Venturing, 10, 425-438.
- Patzelt, H., & Shepherd, D. A. (2011). Negative emotions of an entrepreneurial career: Self-employment and regulatory coping behaviors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26, 226-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.08.002
- Russell, J. A. (1978). Evidence of convergent validity on the dimensions of affect, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1152-1168.
- Schwarz, N., & Clore, G.L. (1983). Mood, misattribution and judgments of well-being: informative and directive functions of affective states, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 513–523.
- Sitkin, S.B., & Pablo, A.L., (1992). Reconceptualizing the determinants of risk behavior. Academy Management Review, 17(1), 9-38.
- Smith, C.A., & Ellsworth, P.C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 813-838. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1243
- Venkataraman S., (2002). Ten principles of entrepreneurial creation”, Batten Briefings, 1(1).
- Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070.
- Welpe, I.M., Sporrle, M., Grichnik, D., Michl, T., & Audretsch, D.B., (2012). Emotions and opportunities: the interplay of opportunity evaluation, fear, joy, and anger as antecedent of entrepreneurial exploitation. Entrepreneurship Theory Practice, 36, 69-96.
Abstract Views: 3
PDF Views: 3