Fulfillment of Fundamental Rights among Bangladeshi People:Does Income and Expenditure Matter?
Objectives: The study is to improve our understanding about effects of lower income than expenditure in fulfilling the fundamental rights of population in Bangladesh.
Methods/Statistical analysis: This study is based on the secondary data mainly collected from the Report on Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) of Bangladesh of different years published by Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Arithmetic growth model is used to calculate required rate of increase or decrease of different variables for the various comparisons.
Findings: The study shows that income, expenditure and consumption has increased over the years but the income has increased at a slower rate than that of the expenditure and consumption. Price hike of essential commodities have resulted in such increase in the expenditure and consumption. When the expenditure has increased at faster rate than that of income, it brings miserable conditions to the population of a country especially for poor and marginalized section. They are bound to sacrifice their different services more specifically the basic needs. They cut their food baskets and make a limitation to the various components of basic necessities like health, education, clothing or housing. As a result, they are unable to fulfill their fundamental rights. It is believed that the results will facilitate policy-makers and respected authorities to take timely and viable steps and develop workable strategies to address the issue of fundamental rights of people in Bangladesh.
Application/Improvements: This study will help other researchers/policy makers to conduct more researches in this field which is still limited in the country.
- I. Ortiz, J. Chai, M. Cummins. Escalating food prices: the threat to poor households and policies to safeguard a recovery for all.Social and Economic Policy Working Paper, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New York, NY. 2011.
- P. Abbott, A.B. Battisti. Recent global food price shocks: causes, consequences and lessons for African governments and donors. Journal of African Economies. 2011; 12-62.
- D. Headey. Was the global food crisis really a crisis? Simulations versus self-reporting Discussion Paper 01087. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC. 2011.
- D. Headey, O.Ecker, J.F.T. Tan. Measuring Food Security in a Volatile World. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC. 2012.
- M. Verpoorten, A. Arora, J.F.M. Swinnen. Self-reported food insecurity in Africa during the food price crisis.Discussion Paper 2012/303.LICOS Discussion Paper Series, KatholiekeUniversiteit Leuven, Belgium, Leuven. 2012.
- Implications of Higher Global Food Prices for Poverty in Low- Income Countries.Policy research working paper No. 4594. 2008.
- K. Huang, W. Huang. Consumer welfare effects of increased food and energy prices. Applied Economics. 2012; 44 (19), 2527-2536.
- I.E. Yousif, S.H.A. Kahtani. Effects of high food prices on consumption pattern of Saudi consumers: A case study of Al Riyadh city. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 2014; 13(2), 169-173.
- A. Brown, A. Deaton. Surveys in applied economics: models of consumer behaviour. The Economic Journal. 1972; 82(328), 1145-1236.
- M. Lavoie. A Post Keynesian Approach to Consumer Choice. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics. 1994; 16(4), 539-562.
- K.W. Clements, Y. Wu, J. Zhang. Comparing international consumption patterns. Empirical Economics. 2006; 31(1), 1-30.
- Preliminary Report on the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2016, Dhaka: Planning Division, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. 2017.
- Report on the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2010, Dhaka: Planning Division, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. 2011.
- Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). Report on the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2005, Dhaka: Planning Division, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. 2007.
- M.R. Amin, N. Farid. Food security and access to food: present status and future perspective. Paper presented at the national workshop on Food Security in Bangladesh, organized by Government of Bangladesh and UN World Food Program, Rome. 2005.
- D. Chotikapanich, W.E. Griffiths, V. Valencia. Global income distributions and inequality, 1993 and 2000: incorporating country-level inequality modeled with beta distributions. Review of Economics and Statistics. 2012; 94(1), 52-73.
Abstract Views: 76
PDF Views: 30