Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

Augmentation of the Fertilizer Values of Compost through Beneficial Microbes Amid Rock Phosphate Amendments during Curing Stage


Affiliations
1 Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat- 785 013, India
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


Chemical and biological parameters of ninety days old rice straw compost under incubation were monitored through inoculation of nitrogen (N) fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) amid rock phosphate (RP) amendments. The fertilizer values and biological stability of the compost produced during the bioprocesses were also assessed to evaluate the quality. Inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and PSB led to intense organic matter (OM) mineralization of the compost and stabilized the carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios of both solid (10.03-12.39) and liquid phase (0.09-0.05). The microbial biomass carbon (MBC) attained a range of higher values in between 4039.70 and 4424.61 μg./g./24hrs. and drop of respiration (13.66 μg. CO2-C/g./24hrs.) indicate a good degree of maturity after incubation. Higher level of stabilized dehydrogenase (DH) (3543.36 and 3763.57μg.TPF/g./24hrs.), phosphomonoesterase (PMEase) (1746.40-3549.63 μg. p-nitrophenol/g./hr.) as well as fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolase (4.13-7.42 μg. fluorescein/g./hr.) were observed at the end of the incubation period. Elevated and reasonably stabilized specific populations of Azospirillum (157.80-121.45 x 105 cfu./g.), Azotobacter (92.09-126.62 x 105 cfu./g.) and PSB (7.79 x 105 cfu./g.) at the end of incubation, were related to the added microorganisms. pH values stabilized in between 7.5 and 7.87, electrical conductivity (EC) drop off to 3.57 dS./m., cation exchange capacity (CEC) evolution to 55.42 c mol(p+)/kg. and NH4+-N shrinked to a minimum of 0.024%, during incubation. The additive strategy of N-fixing and PSB with RP incompost at curing stage visibly showed higher total N (1.85-1.97%), P (1.03-1.15%) and K (0.81-0.91%) in the final product.

Keywords

Compost, C:N Ratio, Enzymes, Microbial Biomass Carbon, Maturity, Stability, Respiration
Subscription Login to verify subscription
User
Notifications
Font Size


  • Bernal, M. P., Alburquerque, J. A. and Moral, R. (2009). Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment: A review. Bioresour. Tech.,100: 544-553.
  • Bernal, M. P., Paredes, C., Sanchez-Monedero, M. A. and Cegarra, J. (1998). Maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared with a wide range of organic wastes. Bioresour. Tech., 63: 91–99.
  • Bhattacharyya, R., Kundu, S., Prakash, V. and Gupta, H. S. (2008). Sustainability under combined application of mineral and organic fertilizers in a rainfed soybean wheat system of the Indian Himalayas. Euro. Jour. Agron.,28: 33–46.
  • Biswas, D. R. and Narayanasamy, G. (2006). Rock Phosphate Enriched Compost: An Approach to Improve Low Grade Indian Rock Phosphate. Bioresour. Tech., 97: 2243-2251.
  • Boulter-Bitzer, J. I., Trevors, J. T. and Boland, G. J. (2006). A polyphasic approach for assessing maturity and stability in compost intended for suppression of plant pathogen. App. Soil Ecol.34: 65-81.
  • Casida, L. E., Klein, D. A. and Santoro, R. (1964). Soil dehydrogenase activity. Soil Sc.. 98: 371-376.
  • Gaind, S., Lata, N. and Patel, V. B. (2009). Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes. Biodegr. 20:307-17.
  • Gigliotti, G., Kaiser. K., Guggenberger, G. and Haumaier, L. (2002). Differences in the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter from waste materials of different sources. Biol Fert. Soils 36: 321-329.
  • Goyal, S., Dhull, S. K. and Kapoor, K. K. (2005). Chemical and biological changes during composting of different organic wastes and assessment of compost maturity. Bioresour. Tech., 96: 1584-1591.
  • Harada, Y.and Inoko, A. (1980). Relationship between cation-exchange capacity and degree of maturity of city refuse composts. Soil Sc. Plant Nutr. 26: 353-362.
  • Hue, N. V. and Liu, J. (1995).Predicting compost stability. Compost Sc. Utilis. 3:8–15.
  • Iannotti, D. A., Grebus, M. E., Toth, B. L., Madden, L. V. and Hoitink, H. A. J. (1994). Oxygen respirometry to assess stability and maturity of composted municipal solid waste. J. Environ. Qual. 23: 1177-1183.
  • Jackson, M. L.(1973). Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., New Delhi.
  • Mondini, C., Dell’Abate, M. T., Leita, L. and Benedetti, A. (2003). An integrated chemical, thermal, and microbiological approach to compost stability evaluation. J. Environ. Qual., 32:2379-2386.
  • Nishanth, D. and Biswas, D. R. (2008). Kinetics of phosphorus and potassium release from rock phosphate and waste mica enriched compost and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum). Bioresour. Tech. 99: 3342-3353.
  • Panse, V. G. and Sukhatme, P. V.(1967). Statistical Method for Agricultural Workers.2nd Edition. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.
  • Pell, M., Stenstorm, J. and Granhall, U. (2006). Soil Respiration. (In) Microbiological Methods for Assessing Soil Quality (Bloem J, Hopkins D W and Benedetti A (Eds.), CAB Inter, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. pp. 117-126.
  • Rao, D. L. N. (2007). Microbial Diversity,Soil Health and Sustainability.J. Indian. Soc. Soil Sc. 55(4):392-403.
  • Rashad, F. M., Walid, D. S. and Mohamed, A. M. (2010). Bioconversion of rice straw and certain agro-industrial wastes to amendments for organic farming systems: 1.Composting, quality, stability and maturity indices. Bioresour. Tech. 101: 5952-5960.
  • Raut, M. P., Prince William, S. P. M., Bhattacharyya, J. K., Chakrabarti, T. and Devotta, S. (2008).Microbial dynamics and enzyme activities during rapid composting of municipal solid waste-a compost maturity analysis perspective. Bioresour. Tech. 99: 6512-6519.
  • Satisha, G. C. and Devarajan, L. (2007). Effect of amendments on windrow composting of sugar industry press mud. Wast. Manag. 27: 1083-1091.
  • Sundberg, C., Smars, S. and Jonsson, H. (2004). Low pH as an inhibiting factor in the transformation from mesophilic to thermophilic phase in composting. Bioresour. Tech. 95: 145–150.
  • Tabatabai, M. A. and Bremner, J. M. (1969). Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil Biol. Biochem. 1: 301-307.
  • Tiquia, S. M. (2002). Evolution of extracellular enzyme activities during manure composting. J. Appl. Microb. 92: 764- 775.
  • Vance, E. D., Brookes, P. C. and Jenkinson, D. S. (1987). An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biol. and Biochem. 19:703-707.
  • Walkley, A. (1947). A critical examination of a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soil. Effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sc. 63:251-263.
  • Zucconi, F. and de Bertoldi, M. (1987). Compost specifications for the production and characterization of compost from municipal solid waste. (In) Compost: Prod., Qual. and Use (de Bertoldi M, Ferranti M P, L’Hermite P and Zucconi F (Eds), Elsevier, Barking, pp. 30-50.

Abstract Views: 368

PDF Views: 1




  • Augmentation of the Fertilizer Values of Compost through Beneficial Microbes Amid Rock Phosphate Amendments during Curing Stage

Abstract Views: 368  |  PDF Views: 1

Authors

D. Gogoi
Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat- 785 013, India
D.J. Nath
Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat- 785 013, India
D.K. Borah
Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat- 785 013, India

Abstract


Chemical and biological parameters of ninety days old rice straw compost under incubation were monitored through inoculation of nitrogen (N) fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) amid rock phosphate (RP) amendments. The fertilizer values and biological stability of the compost produced during the bioprocesses were also assessed to evaluate the quality. Inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and PSB led to intense organic matter (OM) mineralization of the compost and stabilized the carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios of both solid (10.03-12.39) and liquid phase (0.09-0.05). The microbial biomass carbon (MBC) attained a range of higher values in between 4039.70 and 4424.61 μg./g./24hrs. and drop of respiration (13.66 μg. CO2-C/g./24hrs.) indicate a good degree of maturity after incubation. Higher level of stabilized dehydrogenase (DH) (3543.36 and 3763.57μg.TPF/g./24hrs.), phosphomonoesterase (PMEase) (1746.40-3549.63 μg. p-nitrophenol/g./hr.) as well as fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolase (4.13-7.42 μg. fluorescein/g./hr.) were observed at the end of the incubation period. Elevated and reasonably stabilized specific populations of Azospirillum (157.80-121.45 x 105 cfu./g.), Azotobacter (92.09-126.62 x 105 cfu./g.) and PSB (7.79 x 105 cfu./g.) at the end of incubation, were related to the added microorganisms. pH values stabilized in between 7.5 and 7.87, electrical conductivity (EC) drop off to 3.57 dS./m., cation exchange capacity (CEC) evolution to 55.42 c mol(p+)/kg. and NH4+-N shrinked to a minimum of 0.024%, during incubation. The additive strategy of N-fixing and PSB with RP incompost at curing stage visibly showed higher total N (1.85-1.97%), P (1.03-1.15%) and K (0.81-0.91%) in the final product.

Keywords


Compost, C:N Ratio, Enzymes, Microbial Biomass Carbon, Maturity, Stability, Respiration

References