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Prevalence and Severity of Depression and Its Association with Substance Use in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia
Background: Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects 350 million people worldwide. Substance use could be the risk factor for depression. Objective: We aim to determine the prevalence and severity of depression and its association with substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 650 respondents in Jimma town in March 2014. A multistage stratified sampling method was conducted. Structured questionnaire and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scale were used for data collection. Data analysis was done using the SPSS Version 20.0 for Windows. Results: The participation rate of respondents was 590/650 (90.77%). The proportion of females was 300 (50.9%).The current prevalence of depression was 171 (29.0%). Based on the BDI-II grading of the severity of depression, 102 (59.6%) had mild, 56 (32.7%) had moderate, 13 (7.6%) had severe depression. In the present study, age of 55 years and above [OR = 5.94,CI: 2.26-15.58], beingwidowed [OR = 5.18, CI: 1.18-22.76], illiterates [OR = 9.06, CI: 2.96-27.75], khat chewing [OR = 10.07, CI: 5.57-18.25], cigarette smoking [OR = 3.15, CI: 1.51-6.58], and shisha usage [OR = 3.04, CI: 1.01-9.19] were significantly and independently associated with depression. Conclusion: The finding depicted that depression was a moderate public health problem. Advanced age, being widowed, illiterate, khat chewing, and cigarette and shisha smocking could be the potential risk factors for depression. Risk reduction is recommended.
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