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HIV Prophylaxis in High Risk Newborns: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors in an Inner City Context


Affiliations
1 St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5B 1W8, Canada
 

Background: Perinatal HIV transmission is less than 1% with antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Transmission risk appears higher in “high risk” dyads, yet this is not well defined, possibly exposing more infants to combination ARV compared with standard care. Objective: To describe characteristics of mother-infant dyads where infants received ARVs and how these characteristics relate to specific ARV regimens. Methods: Retrospective chart review of ARV-receiving newborns at St. Michael’s Hospital from 2007 to 2012 (and their mothers). Numerical and categorical variables were analyzed using 𝑡-tests/ANOVA 𝐹-tests and Fisher’s exact tests, respectively. Results: Maternal HIV status at delivery was as follows: 69% positive and 24% unknown. Maternal factors significantly associated with newborn-triple therapy are Canadian origin, substance abuse, unstable housing, lost custody of previous children, and sex work. Neonatal factors are child protective services involvement, NICU, and lengthier admission. Maternal factors associated with monotherapy are African origin, HIV-positive, employment, and education. Further analysis based on maternal presentation at delivery demonstrated unequal distribution of many aforementioned factors. Discussion: This cohort revealed associations between particular factors and newborn-monotherapy or triple therapy that exist, suggesting that sociodemographic factors may influence the choice of ARV regimen. Canadian perinatal HIV transmission guidelines should qualify how to risk stratify newborns and consider use of rapid HIV antibody testing.
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  • HIV Prophylaxis in High Risk Newborns: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors in an Inner City Context

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Authors

Zenita Alidina
St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5B 1W8, Canada
Anne E. Wormsbecker
St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5B 1W8, Canada
Marcelo Urquia
St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5B 1W8, Canada
Jay MacGillivray
St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5B 1W8, Canada
Evan Taerk
St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5B 1W8, Canada
Mark H. Yudin
St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5B 1W8, Canada
Douglas M. Campbell
St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5B 1W8, Canada

Abstract


Background: Perinatal HIV transmission is less than 1% with antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Transmission risk appears higher in “high risk” dyads, yet this is not well defined, possibly exposing more infants to combination ARV compared with standard care. Objective: To describe characteristics of mother-infant dyads where infants received ARVs and how these characteristics relate to specific ARV regimens. Methods: Retrospective chart review of ARV-receiving newborns at St. Michael’s Hospital from 2007 to 2012 (and their mothers). Numerical and categorical variables were analyzed using 𝑡-tests/ANOVA 𝐹-tests and Fisher’s exact tests, respectively. Results: Maternal HIV status at delivery was as follows: 69% positive and 24% unknown. Maternal factors significantly associated with newborn-triple therapy are Canadian origin, substance abuse, unstable housing, lost custody of previous children, and sex work. Neonatal factors are child protective services involvement, NICU, and lengthier admission. Maternal factors associated with monotherapy are African origin, HIV-positive, employment, and education. Further analysis based on maternal presentation at delivery demonstrated unequal distribution of many aforementioned factors. Discussion: This cohort revealed associations between particular factors and newborn-monotherapy or triple therapy that exist, suggesting that sociodemographic factors may influence the choice of ARV regimen. Canadian perinatal HIV transmission guidelines should qualify how to risk stratify newborns and consider use of rapid HIV antibody testing.