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Long-Term Dynamics of Urban Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals in Moscow
Results of 21-year-long (1989–2010) observations of the concentrations and the spatial distribution patterns of nine heavy metals (HMs) in topsoils of the Eastern district of Moscow are presented. The quantitative parameters of soil pollution include the annual increase rates of HM concentrations in several land-use zones.The maps of geochemical anomalies were compiled using the data collected in 1989, 2005, and 2010.The growth of the total volume of industrial and vehicles’ emissions between 1989 and 2005 caused significant deposition of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd. The additional input of Cd to the soils is attributed to the application of sewage sludge as fertilizers. The relative increment of concentrations was the highest for Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, and Cr. In 2005–2010, the relative annual increment rate was the highest for Cr, Cd, Co, and Ni, and it increased by an order of magnitude as compared to the previous period. By contrast, Pb and Cu concentrations decreased owing to the soil reclamation, the exclusion of leaded gasoline as a fuel for vehicles and closing some hazardous enterprises. Joint analysis of snow and soil geochemical maps allows identification of the zones of actual, permanent, and relict pollution.
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