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BMI and Risk Factors of Underweight and Obesity in HIV Subjects in Eastern Nigeria
Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a global healthcare problem. Progression of HIV infection is commonly associated with decreasing weight. In the early phases of HIV infection, factors associated with weight changes are not completely known. This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and its potential risk factors in drug-naïve HIV subjects in Owerri, Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study of HIV subjects. BMI was determined. Relevant investigations were performed. Potential risk factors of BMI were analyzed at different BMI categories. Association of variables with BMI and the strength of variables to predict BMI, underweight and obesity were determined. Results: The mean BMI of the HIV subjects was 26.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2. Underweight was present in 24 (6.1%), overweight in 150 (38.4%) and obesity in 84 (21.5%) of the HIV subjects. High spot urine creatinine (SUCr), high 24-hour urine osmolality (24HUOsm), high serum cholesterol and high hemoglobin predicted BMI in HIV subjects. Low 24HUOsm predicted under weight, whereas low 24-hour urine protein (24 HUP) and high 24HUOsm predicted obesity in HIV subjects. Conclusion: The prevalence of underweight was low (6.1%), overweight high (38.4%) and obesity high (21.5%) in HIV subjects. High SUCr, high 24HUOsm, high serum cholesterol and high hemoglobin were predictors of BMI in HIV subjects. Low 24HUOsm was a predictor of underweight, while low 24HUP and high 24HUOsm were predictors of obesity in HIV subjects. Abnormalities of serum lipids, renal function, and anemia were common in HIV subjects who were underweight and in those obese. Underweight HIV subjects should be evaluated at the early stages for dyslipidemia, renal damage and anemia.
HIV, BMI, Underweight and Obesity, Prevalence, Predictors, Nigeria.
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