Open Access Subscription Access
Exploring the Relationship Between Willingness to Communicate in English, and Social/Cultural Capital Among Iranian Undergraduate English Majors
Previous research into willingness to communicate in a second language (L2WTC) has focused primarily on its psychological aspects, and its socio-cultural nature is under explored. Framed with a socio-cultural perspective on second language learning, this study examined the relationship between L2 willingness to communicate, social/cultural capital and its five underlying factors including cultural competence, social competence, social solidarity, literacy, and extraversion in the Iranian EFL context. To this end, the Social and Cultural Capital Questionnaire (SCCQ) by Pishghadam, Noghani, and Zabihi (2011) and WTC questionnaire by MacIntyre, Baker, Clement, and Conrad (2001) were administered to a sample of 312 English-major students from three universities in Iran. The Pearson product-moment correlation showed the existence of highly significant correlations between all five factors of SCCQ and learners' L2WTC. Moreover, results from the regression analysis revealed that cultural competence and literacy were the best predictors of WTC. The implications of the study are discussed.
Willingness to Communicate, Social Capital, Cultural Capital, Iranian EFL Learners.
- Alemi, M., Daftarifard, P., Pashmforoosh, R. (2011). The Impact of Language Anxiety and Language Proficiency on WTC in EFL Context. Cross-cultural Communication 7(3), 150-166.
- Bahrani, T., Sim, T., S., (2011). The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning. English Language Teaching, 4, (2), 60-266
- Baker, S. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2000). The role of gender and immersion in communication and second language orientations. Language Learning, 50(2), 311-341.
- Barcelos, A. M. F. (2003). Researching beliefs about SLA: A critical review. In P. Kalaja & A. M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New research approaches (pp. 7-33). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
- Bennis, W., & Biederman, P. W. (1997). Organizing genius: The secrets of creative collaboration. Cambridge: Perseus Books.
- Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (ed.), Handbook for theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). New York: Greenwood.
- Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. (1990). Reproduction in education, society and culture. London: Sage.
- Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95-S120. doi:10.1086/228943,
- Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: HarperCollins.
- De Graaf, N.D., De Graaf, P.M., & Kraaykamp, G. (2000). Parental cultural capital and educational attainment in the Netherlands: A refinement of the cultural capital perspective. Sociology of Education, 73(2), 92-111.
- DiMaggio, P. (1982). Cultural capital and school success: The impact of status culture participation on the grades of U.S. high school students. American Sociological Review, 47(2), 189-201.
- Dornyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Epcacan, C., & Epcacan, C. (2010). Socio-Economic and cultural factors effecting self efficacy on reading comprehension. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 666-671.
- Eun, C., J., (2009). Effect of Concert Activities with rhythm-based musical Instruments on the Improvement of Sociality among Adolescents in Residential Care. The Second International Conference on Music Communication Science, Sydney, Australia. 11-15
- Fischer, G., Giaccardi, E., Eden, H., Sugimoto, M., & Ye, Y. (2005). Beyond Binary Choices: Integrating Individual and Social Creativity. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63, 482-512.
- Fisher, R. (2005). Teaching children to think (2nd ed.). Cheltenham, UK: Nelson Thornes.
- Ghonsooly, B., Khajavy, G. H., & Asadpour, S. F. (2012). Willingness to communicate in English among Iranian non-English major university students. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 31(2), 197-211.
- Glaveanu, V. P., (2010). Creativity as cultural participation. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 41(1), 48-67.
- John-Steiner, V. (2000). Creative collaboration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Kang, S. J. (2005). Dynamic emergence of situational willingness to communicate in a second language. System, 33(2), 277-292.
- Khodadady, E., & Zabihi, R. (2011). Social and cultural capital: Underlying factors and their relationship with the school achievement of Iranian university students. International Education Studies, 4(2), 63-71.
- Liu, M., & Jackson, J. (2008). An exploration of Chinese EFL learners' unwillingness to communicate and foreign language anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 92(1), 71-86.
- MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15(1), 3-26.
- MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clement, R., & Conrod, S. (2001). Willingness to communicate, social support, and language-learning orientations of immersion students. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 369-388.
- MacIntyre, P. D., Dornyei, Z., Clement, R., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545-562.
- McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, CO.
- McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1987). Willingness to communicate. In J. C. McCroskey & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Personality and interpersonal communication (pp. 129-156). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
- Merenluoto, S. (2009). The connection of cultural capital with success in master's degree programs in Finnish higher education. Research on Finnish Society, 2, 29-38.
- Nakhaie, M.R., & Curtis, J. (1998). Effects of class positions of parents on educational attainment of daughters and sons. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 35(4)483-515.doi:10.1111/j.1755-618X.1998.tb00733.x,
- Peng, J. (2007). Willingness to communicate in the Chinese EFL classroom: A cultural perspective. In J. Liu (Ed.), English language teaching in China: New approaches, perspectives, and standards (pp. 250-269). London: Continuum.
- Pishghadam, R. Noghani, M. & Zabihi, R. (2011). The construct validation of a questionnaire of social and cultural capital. English Language Teaching, 4(4), 195-203.
- Pishghadam, R., Zabihi, R. (2011). Parental Education and Social and Cultural Capital in Academic Achievement. International Journal of English Linguistics 1(2), 50-57.
- Pishghadam, R., Zabihi, R. (2011). Social and Cultural Capital in Creativity. Canadian Social Science, 7(2), 32-38.
- Pishghadam,R., Khajavy, G. H. (2013). Sociological and Psychological Model of Foreign Language Achievement: Examining Social/Cultural Capital and Cognitive/Metacognitive Aspects. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics (IJAL) 16(1), 129-144.
- Sandefur, G., Meier, A., & Hernandez, P. (1999). Families, social capital and educational continuation. CDE Working Paper No. 99-19: Center for Demography and Ecology. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
- Scheffler, R. M., Brown, T. T., & Rice, J. K. (2007). The role of social capital in reducing non-specific psychological distress: The importance of controlling for omitted variable bias. Social Science & Medicine, 65, 842-854.
- Steinfield, C., Ellison, N. B., & Lampe, C. (2008). Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 434-445.
- Wen, W. P., & Clement, R. (2003). A Chinese conceptualisation of willingness to communicate in ESL. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 16(1), 18-38.
- Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 54-66.
- Yashima, T., Zenuk-Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 54(1), 119-152.
Abstract Views: 346
PDF Views: 36