Open Access Subscription Access
Lexicalisation in Japanese, Chinese and German: A Focus Upon Scalarity
This paper brings the scalarity concept, in an effort to uncover how the lexical, morphological and syntactic resources of the three languages in focus (Japanese, Chinese and German) play essential roles when it comes to lexicalisaing motion events into linguistic forms. The findings bring us to the point that path-prominent languages seem to favour rendering path via verb roots, which gives rise to a restriction: one verb can only incorporate an endpoint in a single clause. This restriction prevents Japanese conflating sequential paths in a single clause. In manner-prominent languages, path is rendered via a path verb or a particle, meaning they exhibit two-faced characteristics of conflation. This two-faced characteristic invites a less restrictive morpho-syntactic environment for incorporating path information. In particular, the option of conveying the path via satellites (outside the verb roots) enables sequential paths. Chinese and German are typical in this respect. Moreover, in German, when path is expressed via a particle, sequential paths are accepted; when path is conveyed via a path verb, or a compound verb, only a single path is allowed. In Chinese, the occurrence of [spatial event + non-spatial event] is possible but conditioned: (a) syntactically, the single clause has to be bounded; (b) semantically, the motion path and resultative path are in a successive relation. In addition, the combination [non-spatial event + spatial event] is ruled out, as it disobeys the semantic condition: two events should be assigned to a successive relation.
Japanese, Chinese, German, Lexicalization, Scalar Structure.
- Allen, Shanley, Asli, Ozyurek, Sotaro, Kita, Amanda, Brown, Reyhan, Furman, Tomoko, Ishizuka and Mihoko, Fujii. (2007). Language Specific and Universal Influences in Children's Syntactic Packaging of Manner and Path: A Comparison of English, Japanese, and Turkish. Cognition 102, 16-48.
- Beavers, John. (2008a). Scalar complexity and the structure of events, in Johannes Dolling, Tatjana Heyde-Zybatow, and Martin Schafer (eds.), Event structures in linguistic form and interpretation, 245-265. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Beavers, John. (2008c). On the nature of goal marking and delimitation: evidence from Japanese. Journal of Linguistics 44.183-316.
- Beavers, John. B. Levin, and S.W. Tham. (2010). A Morphosyntactic Basis for Variation in the Encoding of Motion Events. Journal of Linguistics 46, 331-377.
- Bellavia, Elena. (1996). The German uber, in Martin Putz and Rene Dirven (eds.), The construal of space in language and thought 73-107. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Choi, Insung and Bowerman, Melissa. (1991). Learning to express motion events in English and Korean: The influence of language-specific lexicalization patterns. Cognition, 41, 83-121.
- Filipovic, Luna. (2007). Talking about Motion: A Crosslinguistic Investigation of Lexicalization Patterns. John Benjamins, Amsterdam.
- Goldberg, Adele E. (1991b). It Can't Go Down the Chimney Up: Paths and the English Resultative. In Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistic Society, vol. 17.
- Goldberg, Adele E. (1995). Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
- Kennedy, Christopher. (1999). Projecting the Adjective: The Syntax and Semantics of Gradability and Comparison. New York: Garland Press.
- Kennedy, Christopher. (2007). Vagueness and grammar: The semantics of relative and absolute gradable adjectives. Linguistics and Philosophy 30(1): 1-45.
- Kennedy, Christopher and Beth Levin. (2008). Measure of change: The adjectival core of degree achievements. In C. Kennedy and L. McNally, eds., Adjectives and Adverbs: Syntax, Semantics and Discourse, 156-183. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Kennedy, C. and L. McNally. (2005). Scale structure and the semantic typology of gradable predicates. Language, 81(2): 345-381.
- Kubota, Yusuke. (2009). More on scale structure and degree modification: The case of kanari in Japanese. In Proceedings of Chicago Linguistic Society 45. Chicago Linguistics Society.
- Li Wenchao. (2011). A Comparison of Event Framing in Japanese and Chinese. International Journal of Linguistics. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, E. 41, 1-15.
- Li Wenchao. (2013). Lexicalisation patterns of complex-predicate constructions in Japanese. International Journal of Linguistics, Vol. 5, No. 4, 178-187.
- Naigles, Letitia R., Eisenberg, Ann. R., Kako, E., Highter, Assi M, & McGraw, N. (1998). Speaking of motion: Verb use in English and Spanish. Language and Cognitive Processes 13, 521-549.
- Papafragou, Anna, Massey, C., & Gleitman, Lila. (2002). Shake, rattle, 'n' roll: The representation of motion in thought and language. Cognition 84, 189-219.
- Papafragou, Anna, Massey, C., & Gleitman, Lila. (2006). When English proposes what Greek presupposes: The linguistic encoding of motion events. Cognition 98, B75-B87.
- Talmy, Leonard. (1975). Semantics and syntax of motion. In John Kimball (ed.), Syntax and Semantics, vol. IV (181-238). New York: Academic Press.
- Talmy, Leonard. (2000a). Toward a cognitive semantics, vol.1: concept-structuring systems. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
- Talmy, Leonard. (2000b). Toward a cognitive semantics, vol.2: typology and process in concept structuring. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
- Ueno, Seiji. (2007). Nihongo-ni-okeru Kuukan-hyoogen-to Idoo-hyoogen-no Gainenimiron-teki Kenkyuu (Studies on Spacial Expressions and Motion Expressions in Japanese in Conceptual Semantics). Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo.
- Wienold, Gotz. (1995). Lexical and conceptual structures in expressions for movement and space: with reference to Japanese, Korean, Thai, and Indonesian as compared to English and German. In Lexical knowledge in the organization of language, ed. by U. Egli, P. Pause, C. Schwarze, A. Von Stechow, and G. Wienold, 301-340. Benjamins.
- Zlatev, Jordan and Peerapat Yangklang. (2004). A third way to travel: the place of Thai in motion-event typology. Relative events in narrative, vol. 2: typological and contextual perspectives, ed. Sven Stromqvist and Ludo Verhoeven, 159-90. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Abstract Views: 198
PDF Views: 44