Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Formulation and Characterization of Tramadol Emulgel
Topical drug delivery system (TDDS) facilitates the passage of therapeutic quantities of drug substance through the skin and into the general circulation for their systemic effects. Although having plenty of advantages over other routes of administration topical drug delivery system is having certain limitations including hydrophilic drugs cannot easily penetrate across skin, to overcome this problem drug made into sufficient lipophilic or lipophilic drugs are sued along with certain penetration enhancers which help to achieve desired results. Tramadol is a narcotic analgesic proposed for moderate to severe pain. It may be habituating. Tramadol and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine with observed plasma half-lives of 6.3 and 7.4 hours for tramadol and M1, respectively. Approximately 30% of the dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug, whereas 60% of the dose is excreted as metabolites. On this contest, emulgel was formulated using carbopol 934 and HPMC K15M, liquid paraffin as oil phase, emulsifying agents like tween 20 and span 20 and propylene glycol as permeation enhancers. On basis of quality of emulgel produces total eight formulations F1 to F8 were selected. They were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, rheological study, drug content and in-vitro drug permeation study, FTIR and globule size determination. The skin irritation test was performed on rabbit’s skin using best formulation F7. Thus, the formulated emulgel had a distinct advantage over existing conventional dosage form in that the drug permeation was found to be rapid across the skin and hence the increased therapeutic response by bypassing 1st pass metabolism and with no gastro intestinal bleeding and also patient compliance.
Emulsion, Gel, Transdemal Drug Delivery Systems, Tramadol, In-Vitro Drug Permeation Study.
- Vikas Singla, Seema Saini, Baibhav Joshi, And A.C Rana. Emugel: A New platform for topical drug delivery. Int J Pharm and Bio Sci 2012; 3(1):485-98.
- Piyusha Deveda, Anukur Jain, Naveen Vyas, Hemant Khambete And Sanjay Jain. Gellified emulsion for sustained delivery of itraconzole for topical fungal diseases. Int J Pharm pharmaceut sci 2010; 2(1):104-12.
- Canan Hascisek, Aysel Bediz-Olcer, Nursin Gonul. Preparation and evaluation of different gel formulations for transdermal delivery of meloxicam. Int J Pharm 2009; 2(1): 177-85.
- Rachit Khullar, Saini S, Seth N, Rana AC. Emulgels: A surrogate approach for topically used hydrophobic drugs. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2011; 1(3):117-28.
- Magdy I. Mohamed. Optimization of chlorphenesin emulgel formulation. The AAPS journal 2004; 6 (3); 1-7.
- Anukur Jain, Piyusha Deveda, Naveen Vyas, Jitendra Chauhan, Hemant Khambete , Sanjay Jain. Development of antifungal based gel for topical fungal infections. Int J Pharm Res Dev 2011; 2 (12):18-25.
- Rachit Khullar, Deepindar Kumar, Nimrata Seth, Seema Saini. Formulation and evaluation of mefenamic acid emulgel for topical drug delivery. Saudi pharm J 2011; (20):63-67.
- Dignesh M. Khunt, Ashish D. Mishra, Dinesh R. Shah. Formulation design and development of piroxicam emulgel. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2012; 4 (3):1332-44.
- Ashish Y. Pawar et al. Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Topical Microemulsion Gels for Nimsulide. J Pharm Res 2011; 4(4):1004-1006.
- Sushil Raut,Vaibhav Uplanchiwar, Santosh Bhadoria Avinash Gahane, Sunil Kumar Jain, Shrishail Patil. Comparitive evaluation of zidovudine Loaded hydrogels and emulgels. Res J Pharm Tech 2012; 5(1):41-5.
- Singla Vikas, Saini Seema, Rana AC, Singh Gurpreet. Development and evaluation of topical emulgel of lornoxicam using different polymer bases. Int Pharm Sci 2012; 2(3):36-44.
- Joshi Baibhav, Singh Gurpreet, Rana AC, Saini Seema. Development and characterization of clarithromycin emulgel for topical delivery. Int J Drug Dev Res 2012; 4(3):310-23.
- Sonal V. Ghodekar, Shilpa P. Chaudhari, Mukesh. P. Ratnaparakhi. Development and characterization of silver sulfadiazine emulgel for topical drug delivery. Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 2012; 4(4):305-16.
- Arunachalam A et al. Transdermal drug delivery systems: A review. Current Pharma Res 2010; 1(1): 70-81.
- Meera C Singh, Ajinkya S Naik, Sawant SD. Transdermal drug delivery system with major emphasis on transdermal patches. J Pharm Res 2010; 3(10): 2537-2543.
- Robinson JR, Lee VH. Controlled drug delivery fundamentals and applications. 2nd ed. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2005; vol 29: 523-55.
- KottaKranthi Kumar, Sasikanth K, Sabareesh M, Dorababu N. Formulation and evaluation of diacerein cream. Asian J Pharm Clinical Res 2011; 4(2): 93-98.
- Jonathan Hadgraft, Richard H Guy. Transdermal drug delivery: development issues and research initiative. Marcel Dekker. Vol 35: 1-16.
- Divyesh Patel, Nirav Patel, MeghalParmar, NavpreetKaur. Transdermal drug delivery system: review. Int J BiopharmToxicol Res 2011; 1(1): 61-80.
- VirendraYadav. Transdermal drug delivery system: review. Int J Pharm Sci Res2012; 3(2): 376-382.
- Ankush I Shembale, Dipak K Borole, Rajesh T Lohiya. Useful permeation enhancers for transdermal drug delivery: A review. Int J Pharma Res Dev 2010; 2(5):1-6.
- Loyd VA, Nicholas GP, Ansel HC. Pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2005; 298-315.
- Bhavsar JD, Brahambhatt VG, Patel MR, Patel KR, Patel NM. Review article: Novel approaches in semisolids. Int J Pharm World Res 2011; 2(1): 1-22.
- Patil Bharat, MandoreParesh, Sharma RK, Tekade BW, Thakre VM, Patil VR. A review: novel advances in semisolid dosage form and patented technology in semisolid dosage forms. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2011; 3(1): 420-430.
- Rachit Khullar, Saini S, Seth N, Rana AC. Emulgels: a surrogate approach for topically used hydrophobic drugs. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2011; 1(3): 117-128.
- Joshi Baibhav, Singh Gurupreet, Rana AC, SainiSeema, Single Vikas. Emulgel: a comprehensive review on the recent advances in topical drug delivery. Int Res J Pharm 2011; 2(11): 66-70.
- Binda Nair et al. A review on topical diclofenac or in musculoskeletal diseases. Pharmaceuticals 2010; 3: 1892-1908.
- Peter Guni et al. Osteoarthritis rational approach to treating individual. Best Practice Res Clin Rheumatology 2006; 20(4): 721-740.
Abstract Views: 80
PDF Views: 2