Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Study of Gender Difference on Ways of Coping, Mental Health and Rumination in People Living with HIV Positive
Background: Despite the promising developments in medical science in recent years, the global HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to grow. It has gained prominence in India as a growing public health issue. India has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world. In 2017, HIV prevalence among adults (aged 15-49) was estimated 0.2% (UNAIDS 2017). Overall this highly heterogenic population is slowing down and concentrated among key affected population. However the vulnerabilities that drive the epidemic vary due to its strong ties with gender inequalities. Social response towards people living with HIV+ (PLWH) is accompanied with denial, stigma and discrimination which is relatively seen more in women (Brown et al., 2003, Hollen, 2010, Vlassoff et al., 2012). The available research evidences indicate that gender based disparities adversely affect the psychosocial correlates such as ways of coping, mental health and rumination in PLWH. Aim: To assess the gender difference between HIV+ males and females on their ways of coping, mental health, and rumination. Method: To carry out the research, purposive sampling was employed on 100 HIV+ patients including 50 males and 50 females. Results: The significant gender difference was found between HIV+ males and females on their ways of coping, mental health and rumination. Result indicated in comparison to their counterpart males were found to be associated more towards problem focused coping and positive mental health. On the other hand females scored higher on rumination whereas flow was found to be higher in males. Conclusion: The role of gender disparities was found to have a significant impact on ways of coping, mental health and rumination in HIV+ males and females.
Gender and HIV+, Ways of Coping, Mental health, Rumination.
- Aldao, A. N.-H. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30 (2), 217–237.
- Angelino, A. F. (2002). Depression and adjustment disorder in patients with HIV disease. Top HIV Med, 10(5):31–35.
- B, M. (2004). An exploration of socioeconomic, spiritual, and family support among HIV-positive women in India. J. Assoc. Nurses AIDS Care, 15 (3):37-46.
- Baker, R. H. (2004). Emotional processing and panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42 (11), 1271–1287.
- Berking, M. O. (2008). Prospective effects of emotion regulation on emotional adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55 (4), 485–494.
- Brown L, M. K. (2003). Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: what have we learned? AIDS Educ. Prev., 15(1): 49-69.
- C, V. H. (2010). HIV/AIDS and the Gendering of Stigma in South India. Cult. Med. Psychiatr, 34, 633-657.
- Cahill, S. V. (2013). Growing older with HIV/AIDS New public health challenges. American Journal of Public Health, dol:10.2105/AJPH:2012.301161.
- Campbell JC, B. M. (2008). The intersection of intimate partner violence against women and HIV/AIDS: a review. Int. J. Inj. Contr. Saf. Promot., 15(4):221-231.
- Charles B, J. L. (2011). Association between stigma, depression and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in South India-A community based cross sectional study. Health Qual. Life Outco.
- Chaudoir SR, F. J. (2011). Understanding HIV disclosure: A review and application of the Disclosure Processes Model. Soc Sci Med [PubMed], 72, 1618–1629.
- Collins PY, H. A. (2006). What is the relevance of mental health to HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs in developing countries? A systematic review. AIDS, 20(12):1571-1582.
- Cooperman NM, S. J. (2005). Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide among women living with HIV/AIDS. J. Behav. Med., 28(2):149-156.
- Corrigan PW, R. D. (2012). On the self-stigma of mental illness: Stages, disclosure, and strategies for change. Can J Psychiatry [PubMed], 57, 464–469.
- Das S, L. G. (2011). Mental health needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in India: A literature review. AIDS Care., 23(4):417-425.
- Decker MR, S. G. (2009). Intimate partner violence functions as both a risk marker and risk factor for women’s HIV infection: Findings from Indian husband-wife. . J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 51(5).
- Dickerson SS, G. T. (2004). When the social self is threatened: Shame, physiology, and health. J. Pers., 7(26):1191-1216.
- Dickson, K., Ciesla, J. A., and Reilly, L. C. (2011). Rumination, worry, cognitive avoidance, and behavioural avoidance: Examination of temporal effects. Behavior Therapy, 937–959.
- Druley, J. A. (1998). arthritis, Self-esteem as a mediator between spousal support and depressive symptoms: A comparison of health individuals and individuals coping with. Health Psychology, 17, 255-261.
- Fonk K, E. L.-A. (2005). Increased risk of HIV in women experiencing physical partner violence in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS Behav., 9(3):335-340. .
- Gielen AC, M. K. (2001). Quality of life among women living with HIV: the importance violence, social support, and self care behaviors. Soc. Sci. Med, 52(2):315-322.
- Gonzalez JS, S. N.-B. (2004). Social support, positive states of mind, and HIV treatment adherence in men and women living with HIV/AIDs.. Health Psychology, 23(4):413 - 418.
- Halli SS, K. C. (2017). Family and community level stigma and discrimination among women living with HIV/AIDS in a high HIV prevalence district of India. J HIV AIDS Soc Serv, 16:4-19.
- Halli SS, K. C. (2017). Family and community level stigma and discrimination among women living with HIV/AIDS in a high HIV prevalence district of India. J HIV AIDS Soc Serv, 16:4-19. .
- Hunter M, G. R.-M. (2015). They will not even give me a cup of water”: Stress and coping among women living with HIV in Southern India. Int. J. Psychol. Couns., 7(2):40-46.
- Kalichman SC, S. L. (2003). HIV testing attitudes, AIDS stigma, and voluntary HIV counselling and testing in a black township in Cape Town, South Africa. Sex. Transm. Infect. 79(6):442-447.
- Komiti, A.,. (2003). Depression in people living with HIV/AIDS attending primary care and outpatient clinics. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 37:70–77.
- Kowal, J. O. (2008, Sep.). The Role of Psychological and Behavioral Variables in Quality of Life and the Experience of Bodily Pain among Persons Living with HIV. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 36, 247-258.
- Kumar S, M. R. (2015). Positive coping strategies and HIV-related stigma in South India. AIDS Patient Care STDS, 29, 157-63.
- Logie C, G. T. (2009). Meta-analysis of health and demographic correlates of stigma towards people living with HIV. AIDS Care, 21, 742-53.
- Mahajan AP, S. J. (2008). Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward. AIDS, 22(2):S67.
- Nyamathi A, E. M.-G. (2013). Correlates of stigma among rural Indian women living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Behav, 17, 329–339.
- Pedersen, C. W. (2011). The impact of rumination on aggressivethoughts, feelings, arousal, and behaviour. British Journal of SocialPsychology, 50 (2), 281–301.
- Rao D, D. M. (2012). Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the ‘Unity Workshop’: An internalized stigma reduction intervention for African-American women lving with HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDs [Pub Med], 26, 614-620.
- Rintamaki LS, D. T. (2006). Social stigma concerns and HIV medication adherence. AIDS Patient CARE and STDs, 20(5), 359-369.
- Vlassoff C, W. M. (2012). HIV-related Stigma in Rural and Tribal Communities of Maharashtra, India. J. Health. Popul. Nutr., 30 (4), 394.
- Weaver KE, L. M. (2005). A stress and coping model of medication adherence and viral load in HIV-positive men and women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Health Psychol, 24(4), 38.
Abstract Views: 6
PDF Views: 0