Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
An Examination of the Factor structure of the Effortless Meditation Scale and its Benefits on Wellbeing
Dhyana or effortless mediation (EM) is one of the eight limbs of yoga. The effortless meditation techniques have been applied in the field of health as wellness centres. The objective of this paper is to develop the factor structure and find the reliability and validity an instrument to measure the students’ health and wellbeing based on the effortless meditation. We used SPSS and AMOS version 25 to present the analysis of the items in the instrument using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Samples of 604 students aged 11-18 years were selected from 20 secondary schools in Bhopal region, India. The effortless meditation items scale had initial 30 items, with a five point rating scale questionnaire that assessed health and wellbeing. The final tool containing 13 items scale had standardized regression coefficients (0.89). Internal consistency represented by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.98 was in the acceptable range. Three different fitness indices comprising Absolute, Incremental and Parsimonious fits were also analysed and found to be acceptable within the limits. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a one-dimensional factor structure of the Effortless meditation scale (EMS). The extracted EM scale is found to be a valid and reliable measure for health and wellbeing of one self and society. There is a scope for further research work in the other main domains of yoga concept.
Effortless Meditation, Health and Wellbeing, Psychometric Properties, Instrumental Study.
- Brown KW, Ryan RM. The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology. 2003 Apr; 84(4):822.
- MacKillop J, Anderson EJ. Further psychometric validation of the mindful attention awareness scale (MAAS). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2007 Dec 1; 29(4):289-93.
- Aftanas L, Golosheykin S. Impact of regular meditation practice on EEG activity at rest and during evoked negative emotions. International Journal of Neuroscience. 2005 Jan 1; 115(6):893-909.
- Lutz A, Dunne JD, Davidson RJ. Meditation and the neuroscience of consciousness. Cambridge handbook of consciousness. 2007 Apr:499-555.
- Lutz A, Slagter HA, Dunne JD, Davidson RJ. Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2008 Apr 1; 12(4):163-9.
- Davidson RJ, Kaszniak AW. Conceptual and methodological issues in research on mindfulness and meditation. American Psychologist. 2015 Oct; 70(7):581.
- Malhotra AK. An Introduction to Yoga Philosophy: an annotated translation of the Yoga Sutras. Routledge; 2017 Jul 31.
- Kamath MV. Philosophy of life and death. Jaico Publishing House; 1993.
- Shankland R, Kotsou I, Cuny C, Strub L, Brown NJ. Reducing Current Limitations in Order to Enhance the Quality of Subjective Well-Being Research: The Example of Mindfulness. InMetrics of Subjective Well-Being: Limits and Improvements 2017 (pp. 107-132). Springer, Cham.
- Telles S, Singh N, Gupta RK, Balkrishna A. A selective review of dharana and dhyana in healthy participants. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2016 Oct 1; 7(4):255-60.
- Telles S, Naveen KV, Balkrishna A. Meditation and attention: a comment on a recent article. Perceptual and motor skills. 2010 Dec; 111(3):918-20.
- Awasthi B. Issues and perspectives in meditation research: in search for a definition. Frontiers in psychology. 2013 Jan 10; 3:613.
- White DG. The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography. Princeton University Press; 2014 May 25.
- Vivekananda S. Patanjali Yoga Sutra. Prabhat Prakashan; 2017, III.2.
- James rb. Sankhya aphorisms of kapila. Taylor and francis; 2016.
- Kreplin U, Farias M, Brazil IA. The limited prosocial effects of meditation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific reports. 2018 Feb 5; 8(1):2403.
- Sharp PB, Sutton BP, Paul EJ, Sherepa N, Hillman CH, Cohen NJ, Kramer AF, Prakash RS, Heller W, Telzer EH, Barbey AK. Mindfulness training induces structural connectome changes in insula networks. Scientific reports. 2018 May 21; 8(1):7929.
- Schone B, Gruber T, Graetz S, Bernhof M, Malinowski P. Mindful breath awareness meditation facilitates efficiency gains in brain networks: A steady-state visually evoked potentials study. Scientific reports. 2018 Sep 12; 8(1):13687.
- Fujino M, Ueda Y, Mizuhara H, Saiki J, Nomura M. Open monitoring meditation reduces the involvement of brain regions related to memory function. Scientific reports. 2018 Jul 2; 8(1):9968.
- Alderman BL, Olson RL, Brush CJ, Shors TJ. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity. Translational psychiatry. 2017 Feb; 6(2):e726.
- Cotier FA, Zhang R, Lee TM. A longitudinal study of the effect of short-term meditation training on functional network organization of the aging brain. Scientific reports. 2017 Apr 4; 7(1):598.
- Chételat G, Mézenge F, Tomadesso C, Landeau B, Arenaza-Urquijo E, Rauchs G, André C, Flores R, Egret S, Gonneaud J, Poisnel G. Reduced age-associated brain changes in expert meditators: a multimodal neuroimaging pilot study. Scientific reports. 2017 Aug 31; 7(1):10160.
- Sato JR, Kozasa EH, Wallace BA, Amaro E. Neuroimaging data from a single participant before and after a meditation retreat: a proof of concept study. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement. 2017 Jun 1; 1(2):235-41.
- Winters DE, Beerbower E. Mindfulness and meditation as an adjunctive treatment for adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system: Is repairing the brain and nervous system possible?. Social work in health care. 2017 Aug 9; 56(7):615-35.
- Kyeong S, Kim J, Kim DJ, Kim HE, Kim JJ. Effects of gratitude meditation on neural network functional connectivity and brain-heart coupling. Scientific reports. 2017 Jul 11; 7(1):5058.
- Prakash RS, Whitmoyer P, Aldao A, Schirda B. Mindfulness and emotion regulation in older and young adults. Aging and mental health. 2017 Jan 2; 21(1):77-87.
- Cramer H, Hall H, Leach M, Frawley J, Zhang Y, Leung B, Adams J, Lauche R. Prevalence, patterns, and predictors of meditation use among US adults: a nationally representative survey. Scientific reports. 2016 Nov 10; 6:36760.
- Epel ES, Puterman E, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Lum PY, Beckmann ND, Zhu J, Lee E, Gilbert A, Rissman RA, Tanzi RE. Meditation and vacation effects have an impact on disease-associated molecular phenotypes. Translational psychiatry. 2016 Sep; 6(9):e880.
- Wheeler MS, Arnkoff DB, Glass CR. What is being studied as mindfulness meditation?. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2016 Jan; 17(1):59.
- Tang YY, Holzel BK, Posner MI. The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2015 Apr; 16(4):213.
- Skipper T, O'Donovan A, Conlon E, Clough B. An examination of the factor structure of the Effects of Meditation scale. Personality and Individual Differences. 2015 Nov 1; 86:57-62.
- Reavley N, Pallant JF. Development of a scale to assess the meditation experience. Personality and Individual Differences. 2009 Oct 1; 47(6):547-52.
- Telles S, Raghavendra BR, Naveen KV, Manjunath NK, Kumar S, Subramanya P. Changes in autonomic variables following two meditative states described in yoga texts. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2013 Jan 1; 19(1):35-42.
- DeVellis RF. Scale development: Theory and applications. Sage publications; 2016 Apr 12.
- Pasquali L. Instrumentacao psicologica: Fundamentos e praticas [Psychological instrumentation: Bases and practices] Porto Alegre. RS: Artmed.[Links]. 2010.
- Vivekananda S. Patanjali Yoga Sutra. Prabhat Prakashan; 2017.
- Bryant EF. The yoga sutras of Patanjali: A new edition, translation, and commentary. North Point Press; 2015 Jan 27.
- Birdee GS, Sohl SJ, Wallston K. Development and psychometric properties of the Yoga Self-Efficacy Scale (YSES). BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2015 Dec; 16(1):3.
- Birdee GS, Wallston KA, Ayala SG, Ip EH, Sohl SJ. Development and psychometric properties of the Self-efficacy for Mindfulness Meditation Practice scale. Journal of health psychology. 2018 Jun 1:1359105318783041.
- Hutz CS, Bandeira DR, Trentini CM, Krug JS. Psicodiagnostico: Avaliacao Psicologica. Artmed Editora; 2016 Jun 1.
- apuscinski AN, Masters KS. The current status of measures of spirituality: A critical review of scale development. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. 2010 Nov; 2(4):191.
- Montero I, Leon OG. A guide for naming research studies in Psychology. international Journal of clinical and Health psychology. 2007; 7(3).
- Hanh TN. The miracle of mindfulness: An introduction to the practice of meditation. Beacon Press; 2016.
- Waltz CF, Strickland OL, Lenz ER, editors. Measurement in nursing and health research. Springer publishing company; 2010 Apr 17.
- DeVon HA, Block ME, Moyle‐Wright P, Ernst DM, Hayden SJ, Lazzara DJ, Savoy SM, Kostas‐Polston E. A psychometric toolbox for testing validity and reliability. Journal of Nursing scholarship. 2007 Jun; 39(2):155-64.
- Podsakoff PM, House RJ. Leadership effectiveness: Past perspectives and future directions for research. In Organizational behavior 2013 Mar 7 (pp. 55-92). Routledge.
- Likert R. A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of psychology. 1932.
- Reise SP, Waller NG, Comrey AL. Factor analysis and scale revision. Psychol Assess. 2000 Sep; 12(3):287.
- Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, van der Windt DA, Knol DL, Dekker J, Bouter LM, de Vet HC. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status uestionnaires. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2007 Jan 1; 60(1):34-42.
- Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL. Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 6).
- Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. Allyn and Bacon/Pearson Education; 2007.
- Raines-Eudy R. Using structural equation modeling to test for differential reliability and validity: An empirical demonstration. Structural Equation Modeling. 2000 Jan 1; 7(1):124-41.
- Fornell C, Larcker DF. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research. 1981 Feb 1:39-50.
- Hair JF, Sarstedt M, Ringle CM, Mena JA. An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the academy of marketing science. 2012 May 1; 40(3):414-33.
- Awang Z. Structural equation modeling using AMOS graphic. Penerbit Universiti Teknologi MARA; 2012.
- Kline P. A handbook of test construction (psychology revivals): introduction to psychometric design. Routledge; 2015 Jun 3.
- McCoach DB, Gable RK, Madura JP. Instrument development in the affective domain. New York, NY: Springer. doi. 2013 May 9; 10:978-1.
- Hoon Song J, Uhm D, Won Yoon S. Organizational knowledge creation practice: Comprehensive and systematic processes for scale development. Leadership and Organization Development Journal. 2011 May 10; 32(3):243-59.
- Tanaka JS, Huba GJ. A general coefficient of determination for covariance structure models under arbitrary GLS estimation. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology. 1989 Nov; 42(2):233-9.
- Wheaton B, Muthen B, Alwin DF, Summers GF. Assessing reliability and stability in panel models. Sociological methodology. 1977 Jan 1; 8:84-136.
- Ravens-Sieberer U, Karow A, Barthel D, Klasen F. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 2014 Jun; 16(2):147.
- Huang CH, Wang TF, Tang FI, Chen IJ, Yu S. Development and validation of a Quality of Life Scale for elementary school students. International journal of clinical and health psychology. 2017 May 1; 17(2):180-91.
- van den Berg PT, Pitariu H. The relationships between personality and well-being during societal change. Personality and individual differences. 2005 Jul 1; 39(1):229-34.
- Barry AE, Chaney EH, Stellefson ML, Chaney JD. So you want to develop a survey: practical recommendations for scale development. American journal of health studies. 2011 jun 1; 26(2).
- Kabat-Zinn J. Full catastrophe living: The program of the stress reduction clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center.
- Bishop SR, Lau M, Shapiro S, Carlson L, Anderson ND, Carmody J, Segal ZV, Abbey S, Speca M, Velting D, Devins G. Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical psychology: Science and practice. 2004 Sep; 11(3):230-41.
Abstract Views: 60
PDF Views: 0