Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

Air Pollution in China and India:Drawing Parallels


Affiliations
1 Department of East Asian Studies, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


The following article is an attempt to draw similarities in the condition of air pollution in China and India. It has looked at a few factors that affect air quality in the two countries and mentions the current air quality statistics. China has been suffering from pollution since a longer time than India as aggressive manufacturing in China began earlier and hence, environmental deterioration also suffered earlier as compared to India. So, in this article we look at whether India can learn from China’s experiences on the same.

Keywords

Air Pollution, Environment Performance Index (EPI), Sulphur Emissions, Yellow Sand.
User
Subscription Login to verify subscription
Notifications
Font Size

  • Yale Centre for Environmental Law and Policy, “Environmental performance index, 2016 report,” 2016. Available: http://epi.yale.edu/sites/default/files/2016EPI_Full_Report_opt.pdf. Accessed on 17 November 2017.
  • A. Hsu, L. A. Johnson, and A. Lloyd, “Measuring progress: A practical guide from the developers of the Environmental Performance Index (EPI),” New Haven: Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, 2013. Available: http://archive.epi.yale.edu/files/ycelp_measuring_progress_manual.pdf. Accessed on 18 November 2017.
  • Environment health, being the first policy objective, is given 50% weightage and it comprises 3 categories viz. health impacts, air quality and water and sanitation, each given 33% weightage in the score within; whereas ecosystem vitality, being the second policy objective, is again given 50% and it comprises 6 categories viz. water resources (25%), agriculture (10%), forests (10%), fisheries (5%), biodiversity & habitat (25%) and climate & energy (25%).
  • Generally the coal used in China is either Bituminous or Lignite, bituminous being used the most and these two types of coal have lower carbon content and therefore more quantity is required, resulting in increased sulphur dioxide emissions in the air.
  • International Energy Agency, “Key world energy statistics,” 2016. Available: https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/KeyWorld2016.pdf
  • The Worldwatch Institute, “Vital signs 1998,” New York: Island Press, 2015.
  • 700,000 tons (approx.) of sulphur dioxide is emitted annually by China and is transported to adjoining countires as well. See, P. Hayes, and Y. W. Kihl, “Peace and security in Northeast Asia: Nuclear issue and the Korean peninsula,” New York: Routledge, 2016.
  • A. Li, Y. Zhu, and Y. Li, “Proceedings of the 8th International symposium on heating, ventilation and air conditioning,” Indoor and Outdoor Environment, vol. 1, New York: Springer, 2013.
  • Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, India, Energy Statistics, Issue 24. Available: http://www.mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/Energy_Statistics_2017r.pdf.pdf. Accessed on 24 November 2017.
  • “Environmental Impact on Taj Mahal Stalls Indian Oil’s Mathura Refinery Expansion,” Industrial Info Resources. Available: https://www.industrialinfo.com/news/abstract.jsp?newsitemID=139464. Accessed on 16 November 2017.
  • WHO Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database (update 2016). Available: http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/cities/en/
  • Based on statistics of Real-time Air Quality Index (AQI). Available: http://aqicn.org/city/beijing/
  • PM10 is particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter, PM2.5 is particulate matter 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter. PM2.5 is generally described as fine particles. By way of comparison, a human hair is about 100 micrometres, so roughly 40 fine particles could be placed on its width. Particles of any substances that are less than 10 or 2.5 micrometres diameter. Particles in this size range make up a large proportion of dust that can be drawn deep into the lungs. Larger particles tend to be trapped in the nose, mouth or throat. Its value in the air, less than or equal to 50 indicates attainment of the Grade I standard, 50-100, 100-200, 200-300, and larger than 300 are called Grade II, Grade III, Grade IV, and Grade V standards, respectively.
  • Environmental Protection Agency, “Particulate Matter Matters,”. Available:http://www.epa.gov/particles/
  • Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, “Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: An analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease study,” 2015. Available: http://www.healthdata.org/research-article/estimates-and-25-year-trends-global-burden-disease-attributable-ambient-air
  • Global Burden of Diseases, “Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle,” 2016.
  • UNICEF (2016). Clean the Air for Children: Impact of Air Pollution on Children. Available: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/UNICEF_Clear_the_Air_for_Children_30_Oct_2016.pdf
  • India overtook China in number of deaths due to pollution: Report, The Hindu, 16 November 2017.
  • OECD, “Economic consequences of outdoor air pollution,” Policy Highlights, 2016. Available: https://www.oecd.org/environment/indicators-modelling-outlooks/Policy-Highlights-Economic-consequences-of-outdoor-air-pollution-web.pdfhttps:/www.oecd.org/environment/indicators-modelling-outlooks/Policy-Highlights-Economic-consequences-of-outdoor-air-pollution-web.pdf
  • In his address to China’s National People’s Congress on March 5, Premier Li Keqiang called for “he… Available: http://sumo.ly/gz83 via @ClimateHome
  • Won, “Asian Dust Issue,” p. 48.
  • Yun Ho-Joong, “Our Effort to Preserve Desertification” (in Korean), Sanrim, pp. 75-80, May 2004.

Abstract Views: 18

PDF Views: 0




  • Air Pollution in China and India:Drawing Parallels

Abstract Views: 18  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

P. Singh
Department of East Asian Studies, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Abstract


The following article is an attempt to draw similarities in the condition of air pollution in China and India. It has looked at a few factors that affect air quality in the two countries and mentions the current air quality statistics. China has been suffering from pollution since a longer time than India as aggressive manufacturing in China began earlier and hence, environmental deterioration also suffered earlier as compared to India. So, in this article we look at whether India can learn from China’s experiences on the same.

Keywords


Air Pollution, Environment Performance Index (EPI), Sulphur Emissions, Yellow Sand.

References