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Trends of Kalemia at Diagnosis of Acidosis Versus Non-Acidosis Diabetic Ketosis Decompensations in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)


Affiliations
1 Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la Sante, Universite de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
2 Service de Medecine Interne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
 

Introduction: Electrolyte's profile in non-acidosis diabetic ketosis is poorly specified. We aimed to determine the nature of diabetic ketosis decompensations as well as the profile of kalemia and factors associated with its disorders at diagnosis of acidosis compared to non-acidosis diabetic ketosis. Methods: The study was retrospective from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011 in Yalgado Ouédraogo teaching hospital. Diabetic in-patients suffering from simple ketosis, keto-acidosis or mixed decompensation, who achieved blood electrolytes assessment before intensive insulin therapy were included. Results: Sixty two patients were studied. The sex ratio was 0.7 and the mean age was 41.7 years. Keto-acidosis, simple ketosis and mixed decompensation were diagnosed respectively in 18 (29%), 32 (51.6%) and 12 (19.4%) patients. Kalemia was normal in 42 (67.7%), while hypokalemia and hyperkalemia were reported respectively in 11 (17.8%) and 9 (14.5%) patients. Kalemia was often normal in all types of ketosis decompensation and disorders of kalemia occurred more in patients with keto-acidosis (50%) than those with simple ketosis (21.9%); p = 0.04. Renal failure was diagnosed in 10 patients (50%) with and 2 (4.8%) without kalemia's disorders; p = 0.0001. Seven patients (35%) with and 4 (9.5%) without kalemia's disorders suffered from unconsciousness; p = 0.02. It happens more in hyperkalemia (44.4%) than in normal kalemia condition (9.5%); p = 0.02. Conclusion: If kalemia is often normal in all types of diabetic ketosis emergencies, hypokalemia is the most initial frequent potassium disorder.

Keywords

Diabetic Ketosis, Kalemia Disorders, Burkina Faso.
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  • Trends of Kalemia at Diagnosis of Acidosis Versus Non-Acidosis Diabetic Ketosis Decompensations in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

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Authors

Oumar Guira
Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la Sante, Universite de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Herve Tieno
Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la Sante, Universite de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Abraham Bagbila
Service de Medecine Interne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Yempabou Sagna
Service de Medecine Interne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Gerard Coulibaly
Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la Sante, Universite de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Lassane Zoungrana
Service de Medecine Interne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Joseph Y. Drabo
Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la Sante, Universite de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Abstract


Introduction: Electrolyte's profile in non-acidosis diabetic ketosis is poorly specified. We aimed to determine the nature of diabetic ketosis decompensations as well as the profile of kalemia and factors associated with its disorders at diagnosis of acidosis compared to non-acidosis diabetic ketosis. Methods: The study was retrospective from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011 in Yalgado Ouédraogo teaching hospital. Diabetic in-patients suffering from simple ketosis, keto-acidosis or mixed decompensation, who achieved blood electrolytes assessment before intensive insulin therapy were included. Results: Sixty two patients were studied. The sex ratio was 0.7 and the mean age was 41.7 years. Keto-acidosis, simple ketosis and mixed decompensation were diagnosed respectively in 18 (29%), 32 (51.6%) and 12 (19.4%) patients. Kalemia was normal in 42 (67.7%), while hypokalemia and hyperkalemia were reported respectively in 11 (17.8%) and 9 (14.5%) patients. Kalemia was often normal in all types of ketosis decompensation and disorders of kalemia occurred more in patients with keto-acidosis (50%) than those with simple ketosis (21.9%); p = 0.04. Renal failure was diagnosed in 10 patients (50%) with and 2 (4.8%) without kalemia's disorders; p = 0.0001. Seven patients (35%) with and 4 (9.5%) without kalemia's disorders suffered from unconsciousness; p = 0.02. It happens more in hyperkalemia (44.4%) than in normal kalemia condition (9.5%); p = 0.02. Conclusion: If kalemia is often normal in all types of diabetic ketosis emergencies, hypokalemia is the most initial frequent potassium disorder.

Keywords


Diabetic Ketosis, Kalemia Disorders, Burkina Faso.