Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
E-Loyalty for Indian Online Tourism Industry:An assessment of Linear and Quadratic Relationship of Predictors and E-Loyalty
Vibrant and dynamic era of economic development in India is witness for continuous and aggressive growth in major sectors of public as well as private undertakings. Current travel and tourism industry of India is growing at very fast phase. As per the information shared by WTTC (World Travel & Tourism Council) in its report (2017), the travel and tourism industry of India had generated INR 14.1 trillion in 2016, an increase of 6.7% growth from previous year. As we know the Indian travel market is continuously growing, a proper understanding of consumer behaviour towards loyalty in online situation will definitely help the travel related companies to capture more market opportunities in order to increase their market share in this competitive era. Community may be considered as association of human beings where common interest is shared among each other subject to predefined social norms by group members (Andrew, 2002). Virtual community enables an individual to connect and share their views with others, at global level, even if they are not physically meeting with each others. Smart phones have made possible for an individual to connect with their circle of friend, family, colleagues and workmen at anytime and anywhere. This close-up the distance between the two and hence an easy share of information and views regarding a product and services. Virtual community has two relevant features i.e. Reciprocity and Interactivity (Anderson & Mittal 2000). So, Reciprocity and Interactivity may be selected as two most preferred predictors of customer satisfaction especially for Indian Tourism communities. Current study tries to develop a conceptual model of e-loyalty especially for Indian tourism industry where quadratic association of predictors of e-loyalty has established along with linear relationship. 387 tourism websites were taken as sample to collect primary data and model is validated with the help of Structural equation modelling.
e-Loyalty, Online, Tourism Industry, Linear, Quadratic, Predictors.
- Agustin, C., & Singh, J. (2005) Curvilinear effects of consumer loyalty determinants in relational exchanges. Journal of Marketing Research, 42(1), 96-108.
- Aiken, L. S., West, S. G. & Reno, R. R. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
- Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 185
- Anderson, E. W., & Mittal, V. (2000). Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain. Journal of Service Research, 3(2), 107-120.
- Anderson, R. E., & Srinivasan, S. S. (2003). E-satisfaction and e-loyalty: A contingency framework. Psychology & Marketing, 20(2), 123-138.
- Anderson, R. E., & Swaminathan, S. (2011). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in e-markets: A PLS path modeling approach. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 221-234.
- Andrews, D. C. (2002). Audience-specific online community design. Communications of the ACM, 45(4), 64-68.
- Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
- Bloemer, J., & De Ruyter, K. (1998). On the relationship between store image, store satisfaction and store loyalty. European Journal of Marketing, 32(5/6), 499-513.
- Bojanic, D. C., & Warnick, R. B. (2012). The role of purchase decision involvement in a special event. Journal of Travel Research, 51(3), 357-366.
- Brislin, R. W., Lonner, W. J., & Thorndike, R. M. (1973). Cross-cultural: Research methods. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
- Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56(2), p.81.
- Cheung, C. M., Lee, M. K., & Lee, Z. W. (2013). Understanding the continuance intention of knowledge sharing in online communities of practice through the post-knowledge-sharing evaluation processes. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(7), 1357-1374.
- Chin, W. (1998). Issues and opinion on structural equation modelling. MIS Quarterly, 22(1), 1-8.
- Chiou, J. S., & Droge, C. (2006). Service quality, trust, specific asset investment, and expertise: Direct and indirect effects in a satisfaction-loyalty framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(4), 613-627.
- Chiu, C. M., Hsu, M. H., & Wang, E. T. (2006). Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: An integration of social capital and social cognitive theories. Decision Support Systems, 42(3), 1872-1888.
- Christodoulides, G., & Michaelidou, N. (2010). Shopping motives as antecedents of e-satisfaction and e-loyalty. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(1/2), 181-197.
- Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99-113.
- Dorsch, M. J., & Carlson, L. (1996). A transaction approach to understanding and managing customer equity. Journal of Business Research, 35(3), 253-264.
- Engel, J. F., & Blackwell, R. D. (1982). Consumer behaviour. The Dryden Press, New York, NY.
- Etzioni, A. (1996). The responsive community: A communitarian perspective. American Sociological Review, 61(1), 1-11.
- Fehr, E., & Gächter, S. (2000). Fairness and retaliation: The economics of reciprocity. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3), 159-181.
- Fornell, C. (1992). A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience. The Journal of Marketing, 56(1), 6-21.
- Ganzach, Y. (1997). Misleading interaction and curvilinear terms. Psychological Methods, 2(3), 235.
- Gomez, M. I., Mclaughlin, E. W., & Wittink, D. R. (2004). Customer satisfaction and retail sales performance: An empirical investigation. Journal of Retailing, 80(4), 265-278.
- Grootaert, C. (1999). Social capital, household welfare, and poverty in Indonesia. World bank policy research working paper.
- Headar, M. M., Elaref, N., & Yacout, O. M. (2013). Antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction with e-learning: the case of private universities in Egypt. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 23(2), 226-257.
- Jaccard, J., Turrisi, R., & Choi, K. W. (1990). Interaction Effects in Multiple Regression, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.
- Jones, T. O., & Sasser, W. E. (1995). Why satisified customers defect? Harvard Business Review, 73(6), 88-99.
- Korgaonkar, P., & O’leary, B. (2008). Product, marketing and web site attributes discriminating between successful and failed internet businesses. Journal of Internet Commerce, 7(4), 485-512.
- Kuehn, A. A. (1962). Consumer brand choice as a learning process. Journal of Advertising Research, 2(4), 10-17.
- Labrecque, L. I. (2014). Fostering consumer-brand relationships in social media environments: The role of parasocial interaction. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(2), 134-148.
- Lee, T. H., & Hsu, F. Y. (2013). Examining how attending motivation and satisfaction affects the loyalty for attendees at aboriginal festivals. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(1), 18-34.
- McKinsey (2012). The social economy: Unlocking value and productivity through social technologies. McKinsey & Company, Chicago.
- Mathwick, C., Wiertz, C., & De Ruyter, K. (2008). Social capital production in a virtual P3 community. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(6), 832-849.
- Oliva, T. A., Oliver, R. L., & Macmillan, I. C. (1992). A catastrophe model for developing service satisfaction strategies. The Journal of Marketing, 56(3), 83-95.
- Onyx, J., & Bullen, P. (2000). Measuring social capital in five communities. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 36(1), 23-42.
- Prayag, G. (2012). Paradise for who? Segmenting visitors satisfaction with cognitive image and predicting behavioural loyalty. International Journal of Tourism Research, 14(1), 1-15.
- Reichheld, F. F., Markey, R. G., & Hopton, C. (2000). The loyalty effect-the relationship between loyalty and profits. European Business Journal, 12(3), p.134.
- Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Criteria for scale selection and evaluation, measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. Academic, San Diego, CA.
- Rust, R. T., & Oliver, R. L. (2000). Should we delight the customer? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 86-94.
- Smith, R. E., & Wright, W. F. (2004). Determinants of customer loyalty and financial performance. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 16(1), 183-205.
- Statista (2013). Statistics and facts about travel and tourism industry in China. Retrieved from www.statista.com/topics/1210/tourism-industry-in-china/ (accessed 8 August 2013).
- Song, J. H., & Zinkhan, G. M. (2008). Determinants of perceived web site interactivity. Journal of Marketing, 72(2), 99-113.
- Spreng, R. A., Mackenzie, S. B., & Olshavsky, R. W. (1996). A reexamination of the determinants of consumer satisfaction. The Journal of Marketing, 60(3), 15-32.
- Srinivasan, S. S., Anderson, R., & Ponnavolu, K. (2002). Customer loyalty in e-commerce: An exploration of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Retailing, 78(1), 41-50.
- Valvi, A. C., & Fragkos, K. C. (2012). Critical review of the e-loyalty literature: A purchase-centred framework. Electronic Commerce Research, 12(3), 331-378.
- Vlachos, P. A., Krepapa, A., Panagopoulos, N. G., & Tsamakos, A. (2013). Curvilinear effects of corporate social responsibility and benevolence on loyalty. Corporate Reputation Review, 16(4), 248-262.
- Wasko, M. M., & Faraj, S. (2005). Why should I share? Examining social capital and knowledge contribution in electronic networks of practice. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 35-57.
- Wang, E. S. T., & Wang, M. C. H. (2013). Social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction: Integrating online and offline contexts. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(11), 843-849.
- Weitz, B. A. (1981). Effectiveness in sales interactions: A contingency framework. The Journal of Marketing, 45(1), 85-103.
- Wu, W. P., Chan, T., & Lau, H. H. (2008). Does consumers’ personal reciprocity affect future purchase intentions?. Journal of Marketing Management, 24(3/4), 345-360.
- Yadav, M. S., & Varadarajan, R. (2005). Interactivity in the electronic marketplace: an exposition of the concept and implications for research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(4), 585-603.
- Yang, X., Zhang, X., & Gallagher, K. (2016). The moderating effect of online community affiliation and information value on satisfaction with online travel communities in China. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 19(3), 190-208.
- Ye, Q., Law, R., Gu, B., & Chen, W. (2011). The influence of user-generated content on traveller behaviour: An empirical investigation on the effects of e-word-of-mouth to hotel online bookings. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 634-639.
Abstract Views: 26
PDF Views: 0