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Initiation of Triangle Zones by Delamination, Shear, and Compaction at the Front of Fold-And-Thrust Belts
The interest of this paper is to investigate the initiation of triangle zones at the front of fold-and-thrust belts by analyzing the virtual velocity fields in triangle wedges. It allows achieving five collapse mechanisms by delamination, shear, and compaction of competing for the formation of triangle zones as follows.The first mechanism is the classical Coulomb shear thrust.The second is delamination at the frontal part of the decollement with straight back thrust, while the third is delamination with curvy back thrust. The fourth is the combination of ramp with Coulomb shear and shear-enhanced compact fault, while the fifth is the combination of the exchanging motion on the ramp and thrust. The dominating mechanism in the formation of triangle zones relies on the competition of the least upper bound of each mechanism when subjected to tectonic force. The controlling factors of the competition are discovered as follows: (1) the frictional characters and cohesion of horizontal decollements and thrust, (2) the slope of the topography of accretion wedge, and (3) the thickness and rock density of the front toe of accretion wedge.
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