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Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats


Affiliations
1 Department of Computer Science, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolucion No. 1500 Building M, Laboratory 212, 44430 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
2 Department of Physiology, CUCS Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada 950, Building PThird Floor, 44290 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
3 Department of Physiology Biophysics and Neurosciences, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados IPN, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, 07360 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
4 Department of Veterinary and Medicine, CUCBA Universidad de Guadalajara, Camino Ing. Ramon Padilla Sanchez 2100, 45110 Zapopan, JAL, Mexico
5 Department of Neuroscience, CUCS Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada 950, Building P Third Floor, 44290 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
 

We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level,with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 Days After Injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb Angular Displacement (AD) of the Pendulum-Like Movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats.
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  • Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

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Authors

Braniff de la Torre Valdovinos
Department of Computer Science, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolucion No. 1500 Building M, Laboratory 212, 44430 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
Judith Marcela Duenas Jimenez
Department of Physiology, CUCS Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada 950, Building PThird Floor, 44290 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
Ismael Jimenez Estrada
Department of Physiology Biophysics and Neurosciences, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados IPN, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, 07360 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
Jacinto Banuelos Pineda
Department of Veterinary and Medicine, CUCBA Universidad de Guadalajara, Camino Ing. Ramon Padilla Sanchez 2100, 45110 Zapopan, JAL, Mexico
Nancy Elizabeth Franco Rodriguez
Department of Computer Science, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolucion No. 1500 Building M, Laboratory 212, 44430 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
Jose Roberto Lopez Ruiz
Department of Neuroscience, CUCS Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada 950, Building P Third Floor, 44290 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
Laura Paulina Osuna Carrasco
Department of Neuroscience, CUCS Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada 950, Building P Third Floor, 44290 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
Ahiezer Candanedo Arellano
Department of Neuroscience, CUCS Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada 950, Building P Third Floor, 44290 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
Sergio Horacio Duenas Jimenez
Department of Neuroscience, CUCS Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada 950, Building P Third Floor, 44290 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico

Abstract


We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level,with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 Days After Injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb Angular Displacement (AD) of the Pendulum-Like Movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats.